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The Evolution of Gender Gaps in Industrialized Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Claudia Olivetti

    () (Department of Economics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467
    National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138)

  • Barbara Petrongolo

    () (School of Economics and Finance, Queen Mary University, London E1 4NS, United Kingdom
    Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics, London WC2A 2AE, United Kingdom)

Abstract

Women in developed economies have made major advancements in labor markets throughout the past century, but remaining gender differences in pay and employment seem remarkably persistent. This article documents long-run trends in female employment, working hours, and relative wages for a wide cross section of developed economies. It reviews existing work on the factors driving gender convergence, and novel perspectives on remaining gender gaps. Finally, the article emphasizes the interplay between gender trends and the evolution of the industry structure. Based on a shift-share decomposition, it shows that the growth in the service share can explain at least half of the overall variation in female hours, both over time and across countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2016. "The Evolution of Gender Gaps in Industrialized Countries," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 8(1), pages 405-434, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:anr:reveco:v:8:y:2016:p:405-434
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    Cited by:

    1. Doepke, M. & Tertilt, M., 2016. "Families in Macroeconomics," Handbook of Macroeconomics, Elsevier.
    2. repec:kap:jecinq:v:16:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s10888-018-9384-z is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:spr:demogr:v:54:y:2017:i:5:d:10.1007_s13524-017-0612-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Lucifora, Claudio & Vigani, Daria, 2016. "What If Your Boss Is a Woman? Work Organization, Work-Life Balance and Gender Discrimination at the Workplace," IZA Discussion Papers 9737, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:19337549 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "How (Not) to Make Women Work?," GRAPE Working Papers 1, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    7. Sofia Izquierdo Sanchez & Maria Navarro Paniagua, 2017. "Hollywood’s Wage Structure and Discrimination," Working Papers 152465718, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    8. repec:bla:econom:v:84:y:2017:i:334:p:180-209 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. A.B. Atkinson & A. Casarico & S. Voitchovsky, 2016. "Top Incomes and the Gender Divide," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2016n27, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    10. repec:ces:ifodic:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:03-07 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Natalie Chun & Heiwai Tang, 2018. "Do Information and Communication Technologies Empower Female Workers? Firm-Level Evidence from Viet Nam," Working Papers id:12804, eSocialSciences.
    12. Arbatli, Cemal Eren & Ashraf, Quamrul & Galor, Oded & Klemp, Marc, 2018. "Diversity and Conflict," IZA Discussion Papers 11487, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Rosa Duarte & Cristina Sarasa & Mònia Serrano, 2018. "Structural change and female participation in recent economic growth: A multisectoral analysis for the Spanish economy," UB Economics Working Papers 2018/371, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat d'Economia i Empresa, UB Economics.
    14. Dahl, Gordon B. & Kotsadam, Andreas & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2018. "Does Integration Change Gender Attitudes? The Effect of Randomly Assigning Women to Traditionally Male Teams," Working Paper Series 5/2018, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    15. Gay, Victor & Hicks, Daniel L. & Santacreu-Vasut, Estefania, 2016. "Language and Gender Roles among Immigrants to the US: A Historical Perspective," MPRA Paper 77565, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Andreas Kuhn & Stefan C. Wolter, 2018. "The Strength of Gender Norms and Gender-Stereotypical Occupational Aspirations Among Adolescents," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0151, University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration (IBW).
    17. Isabelle Sin & Steven Stillman & Richard Fabling, 2017. "What drives the gender wage gap? Examining the roles of sorting, productivity differences, and discrimination," Working Papers 17_15, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    18. repec:eee:labeco:v:47:y:2017:i:c:p:124-137 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Giulia Mancini, 2017. "Women’s labor force participation in Italy, 1861-2016," HHB Working Papers Series 8, The Historical Household Budgets Project.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    female employment; gender gaps; industry structure;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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