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Gender gaps and the structure of local labour markets

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  • Barbara Petrongolo

    (Queen Mary University of London)

  • Maddalena Ronchi

    (Queen Mary University of London)

Abstract

In this paper we discuss some strands of the recent literature on the evolution of gender gaps and their driving forces. We will revisit key stylized facts about gender gaps in employment and wages in a few high-income countries. We then discuss and build on one gender-neutral force behind the rise in female employment, namely the rise of the service economy, which is also closely related to the polarisation of female employment and to the geographic distribution of jobs, which is expected to be especially relevant for female employment prospects. We finally turn to currently debated causes of remaining gender gaps and discuss existing evidence on labour market consequences of women's heavier caring responsibilities in the household. In particular, we highlight how women's stronger distaste for commuting time may feed into gender pay gaps by making women more willing to trade off steeper wage gains for shorter commutes.

Suggested Citation

  • Barbara Petrongolo & Maddalena Ronchi, 2020. "Gender gaps and the structure of local labour markets," Working Papers 901, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:qmw:qmwecw:901
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    5. Anne Boring & Jennifer Brown, 2021. "Gender and Choices in Higher Education," Sciences Po publications 122, Sciences Po.
    6. Bachmann, Ronald & Gonschor, Myrielle, 2022. "Technological progress, occupational structure and gender gaps in the German labour market," Ruhr Economic Papers 955, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    7. Farré, Lídia & Ortega, Francesc, 2021. "Family Ties, Geographic Mobility and the Gender Gap in Academic Aspirations," IZA Discussion Papers 14561, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Hennecke, Juliane & Pape, Astrid, 2020. "Suddenly a Stay-at-Home Dad? Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Fathers' Job Loss on Time Investment in the Household," IZA Discussion Papers 13866, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Michaela Fuchs & Anja Rossen & Antje Weyh & Gabriele Wydra‐Somaggio, 2021. "Where do women earn more than men? Explaining regional differences in the gender pay gap," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(5), pages 1065-1086, November.
    10. Benjamin Lerch, 2021. "From Blue to Steel-Collar Jobs: The Decline in Employment Gaps?," IdEP Economic Papers 2102, USI Università della Svizzera italiana.
    11. Bachmann, Ronald & Stepanyan, Gayane, 2020. "It's a woman's world? Occupational structure and the rise of female employment in Germany," Ruhr Economic Papers 889, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    12. Adamus, Magdalena & Mikušková, Eva Ballová, 2020. "Gender-based wage discrimination and the backlash effect in recruitment and dismissal processes Experimental evidence from Slovakia," OSF Preprints 4y6uc, Center for Open Science.
    13. Nezih Guner & Ezgi Kaya & Virginia Sánchez-Marcos, 2021. "Labor Market Institutions and Fertility," Working Papers 1297, Barcelona School of Economics.
    14. SASAHARA Akira & MORI Hiroaki, 2021. "The Effects of Trade on the Gender Gaps: A Model-based Quantitative Investigation," Discussion papers 21076, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    15. Gashi Ardiana & Adnett Nick, 2020. "Are Women Really Paid More than Men in Kosovo? Unpicking the Evidence," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 15(2), pages 83-95, December.
    16. Meekes, Jordy & Hassink, Wolter H.J., 2022. "Gender differences in job flexibility: Commutes and working hours after job loss," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    17. Farré, Lídia & Jofre-Monseny, Jordi & Torrecillas, Juan, 2020. "Commuting Time and the Gender Gap in Labor Market Participation," IZA Discussion Papers 13213, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    18. Meekes, Jordy & Hassink, Wolter, 2020. "Fired and Pregnant: Gender Differences in Job Flexibility Outcomes after Job Loss," IZA Discussion Papers 13779, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Popov, Alexander, 2022. "The division of spoils in a booming industry," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 198(C), pages 341-369.
    20. Borghorst, Malte & Mulalic, Ismir & van Ommeren, Jos, 2021. "Commuting, Children and the Gender Wage Gap," Working Papers 15-2021, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
    21. Marcén, Miriam & Morales, Marina, 2021. "Culture and the cross-country differences in the gender commuting gap," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 96(C).
    22. Anne Boring & Jennifer Brown, 2021. "Gender and Choices in Higher Education," Post-Print hal-03383112, HAL.
    23. Claudia Hupkau & Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela, 2022. "Work and children in Spain: challenges and opportunities for equality between men and women," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 243-268, May.
    24. Dodini, Samuel & Lovenheim, Michael F. & Salvanes, Kjell G & Willén, Alexander, 2020. "Monopsony, Skills, and Labor Market Concentration," CEPR Discussion Papers 15412, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender gaps; industry structure; local labour markets.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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