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A Most Egalitarian Profession: Pharmacy and the Evolution of a Family-Friendly Occupation

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  • Claudia Goldin
  • Lawrence F. Katz

Abstract

Pharmacy today is a highly remunerated female-majority profession with a small gender earnings gap and low earnings dispersion. Using extensive surveys of pharmacists, as well as the US Census, American Community Surveys, and Current Population Surveys, we explore the gender earnings gap, penalty to part-time work, demographics of pharmacists relative to other college graduates, and evolution of the profession during the last half-century. Technological changes increasing substitutability among pharmacists, growth of pharmacy employment in retail chains and hospitals, and related decline of independent pharmacies reduced the penalty to part-time work and contribute to the narrow gender earnings gap in pharmacy.

Suggested Citation

  • Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, 2016. "A Most Egalitarian Profession: Pharmacy and the Evolution of a Family-Friendly Occupation," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(3), pages 705-746.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:jlabec:doi:10.1086/685505
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bruins, Marianne, 2017. "Women's economic opportunities and the intra-household production of child human capital," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 122-132.
    2. repec:kap:jecinq:v:16:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s10888-018-9384-z is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Grace Lordan & Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 2016. "Does Rosie Like Riveting? Male and Female Occupational Choices," CEP Discussion Papers dp1446, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    4. repec:aea:jeclit:v:55:y:2017:i:3:p:789-865 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:aea:aecrev:v:107:y:2017:i:12:p:3722-59 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Alexandre Mas & Amanda Pallais, 2017. "Valuing Alternative Work Arrangements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(12), pages 3722-3759, December.
    7. Hengel, E., 2017. "Publishing while Female. Are women held to higher standards? Evidence from peer review," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1753, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    8. V. Joseph Hotz & Per Johansson & Arizo Karimi, 2017. "Parenthood, Family Friendly Workplaces, and the Gender Gaps in Early Work Careers," NBER Working Papers 24173, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Ashley C. Craig & Roland G. Fryer, Jr, 2017. "Complementary Bias: A Model of Two-Sided Statistical Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 23811, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Dahl, Gordon B. & Kotsadam, Andreas & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2018. "Does Integration Change Gender Attitudes? The Effect of Randomly Assigning Women to Traditionally Male Teams," IZA Discussion Papers 11323, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Arbatli, Cemal Eren & Ashraf, Quamrul & Galor, Oded & Klemp, Marc, 2018. "Diversity and Conflict," IZA Discussion Papers 11487, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. repec:eee:jeborg:v:146:y:2018:i:c:p:222-247 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Francesconi, Marco & Parey, Matthias, 2018. "Early Gender Gaps Among University Graduates," CEPR Discussion Papers 12754, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2017. "Occupational Licenses and Labor Market Outcomes," Discussion papers 17078, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    15. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 789-865, September.
    16. Anthony B. Atkinson & Alessandra Casarico & Sarah Voitchovsky, 2018. "Top incomes and the gender divide," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 16(2), pages 225-256, June.
    17. repec:spr:jlabrs:v:50:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s12651-017-0225-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Adnan, Wifag & Miaari, Sami H., 2018. "Voting Patterns and the Gender Wage Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 11261, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Francine D. Blau & Anne E. Winkler, 2017. "Women, Work, and Family," NBER Working Papers 23644, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Cortes, Patricia & Pan, Jessica, 2017. "Occupation and Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 10672, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    21. Burdín, Gabriel & Pérotin, Virginie, 2016. "Employee Representation and Flexible Working Time," IZA Discussion Papers 10437, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    22. Bütikofer, Aline & Jensen, Sissel & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2018. "The Role of Parenthood on the Gender Gap among Top Earners," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 9/2018, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.

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