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Health, Work and Working Conditions: A Review of the European Economic Literature

Listed author(s):
  • Thomas Barnay

    (University Paris-Est Créteil)

Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity bias (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29%) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific “flexicurity” (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health. This Working Paper relates to the 2014 OECD Economic Survey of the United States (www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/United States ). Santé, emploi et conditions de travail : Étude des publications économiques européennes Les économistes sont généralement très prudents lorsqu’il s’agit d’étudier les liens entre l’emploi et la santé, en raison du lien de causalité mutuel entre ces deux variables : l’état de santé joue sur la probabilité de travailler, tandis que le travail influe sur l’état de santé. Dans la mesure où les deux variables sont déterminées simultanément, les chercheurs prennent en compte les biais d’endogénéité (causalité inversée ou variables omises, par exemple) lorsqu’ils réalisent des analyses empiriques. Tout en gardant cette réserve à l’esprit, les études publiées montrent qu’un environnement de travail favorable et un niveau élevé de sécurité de l’emploi sont liés à un meilleur état de santé. Le fait d’avoir un emploi et de bonnes conditions de travail joue un rôle protecteur sur la santé physique et psychique. À l’opposé, le chômage comme la retraite sont généralement pires pour la santé psychique que l’emploi, et le suremploi a un effet néfaste sur la santé. Ces observations mettent en évidence l’importance de l’emploi et de bonnes conditions de travail pour la santé des actifs. Dans ce contexte, il est préoccupant de constater qu’une part significative des travailleurs en Europe (29 %) souhaiterait faire moins d’heures de travail, car le fait de travailler de longues heures sans l’avoir voulu traduit probablement un faible niveau de satisfaction professionnelle et des conditions de travail inadaptées, avec à la clé des conséquences néfastes sur la santé. C’est pourquoi en Europe, les politiques de l'emploi font de plus en plus attention à la pérennité de l’emploi et à la satisfaction professionnelle. Les études publiées invitent clairement les entreprises à mieux prendre en compte les souhaits des salariés quant au nombre d’heures travaillées. De manière générale, une « flexisécurité » spécifique (combinaison entre protection de l’emploi élevée, satisfaction professionnelle et mesures actives du marché du travail) devrait avoir des effets bénéfiques sur la santé. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l'Étude économique de l'OCDE de États-Unis 2014 (www.oecd.org/eco/etudes/etats-unis.htm).

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Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Economics Department Working Papers with number 1148.

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Date of creation: 21 Jul 2014
Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:1148-en
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