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Souhaiter prendre sa retraite le plus tôt possible : santé, satisfaction au travail et facteurs monétaires

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  • Didier Blanchet
  • Thierry Debrand

Abstract

[ger] Der Wunsch, möglichst früh in Rente zu gehen: Gesundheit, Zufriedenheit bei der Arbeit und fi nanzielle Faktoren. Die Präferenzen der einzelnen Personen im Hinblick auf das Rentenalter sind je nach Land und sogar innerhalb eines jeden Lands sehr unterschiedlich. Der Anteil der über 50-jährigen und noch erwerbstätigen Personen, die möglichst rasch in den Ruhestand gehen möchten, reicht von rund 30 % in den Niederlanden bis zu 67 % in Spanien. Dieser Wunsch, rasch aus dem Erwerbsleben auszuscheiden, kann durch zugleich wirtschaftliche und nicht wirtschaftliche Faktoren bedingt sein. Zu den nicht wirtschaftlichen Faktoren gehören insbesondere die Zufriedenheit bei der Arbeit, die Gesundheit oder auch die Lebenserwartung: ein schlechter Gesundheitszustand, eine kurze Lebenserwartung und eine wenig befriedigende Arbeit sind allesamt Gründe, möglichst rasch in Ruhestand gehen zu wollen. Entscheidend können aber auch wirtschaftliche oder fi nanzielle Aspekte sowie insbesondere die Rentenansprüche sein. Eine hohe Rente bei Begründung des Anspruchs auf Altersversorgung ermöglicht ein frühes Ausscheiden. Geringere oder nach Alter gestaffelt Ansprüche gestatten dies seltener. Durch Kombination der Daten aus der Erhebung Share . mit den von der OECD kürzlich vorgeschlagenen Strukturindikatoren der Rentenansprüche nach den einzelnen Ländern kann die gemeinsame Rolle aller dieser Faktoren analysiert werden. Auf individueller Ebene stellen Gesundheit und Zufriedenheit bei der Arbeit wichtige Determinanten des Wunschs dar, möglichst rasch in Rente zu gehen: bei globaler Zufriedenheit mit seiner Arbeit sinkt die Wahrscheinlichkeit um rund 16 Prozentpunkte, möglichst früh in Ruhestand gehen zu wollen; bei schlechter oder sehr schlechter Gesundheit ist der gegenteilige Effekt ungefähr gleichen Umfangs festzustellen. Diese nicht wirtschaftlichen Faktoren erklären aber nur einen begrenzten Teil der Unterschiede zwischen den Ländern, da ihre Durchschnitte je nach Land zu wenig differenziert sind. Dagegen geben die wirtschaftlichen Determinanten recht gut Aufschluss über eine Reihe nationaler Besonderheiten. [spa] Jubilación anticipada: salud, satisfacción laboral y factores económicos. Los deseos individuales en materia de la edad de jubilación son muy diferentes entre los países, incluso dentro de cada país. La proporción de individuos de más de 50 años todavía activos que desea jubilarse lo antes posible varía entorno al 30 % en los Países Bajos y el 67 % en España. Esta aspiración a una salida rápida puede depender a la vez de factores económicos y no económicos. Los factores no económicos incluyen en particular la satisfacción en el trabajo, la salud o la esperanza de vida: una salud degradada, una corta esperanza de vida y un trabajo poco satisfactorio son buenas razones para querer jubilarse lo más pronto posible. Pero este deseo puede depender también de factores económicos o monetarios y, especialmente, del baremo de derecho a la jubilación. Prestaciones superiores a partir de la edad de apertura de los derechos permiten considerar una prejubilación. Menores derechos o derechos progresivos según la edad deberían atenuar esta tendencia. Combinando los datos de la encuesta Share y los indicadores de estructura del derecho a la jubilación por países, recientemente propuestos por la OCDE, es posible analizar el papel conjunto de todos estos factores. A título individual, parece que la salud y la satisfacción en el trabajo son determinantes básicos en el deseo de jubilarse antes de tiempo: estar globalmente satisfecho de su trabajo reduce de aproximadamente 16 puntos la probabilidad de desear jubilarse con anticipación, declararse en mal o muy mal estado de salud tiene un efecto inverso, con un alcance más o menos comparable. Pero estos factores no económicos sólo explican una pequeña parte de las diferencias entre los países, ya que sus promedios se diferencian muy poco de un país al otro. Por el contrario, los determinantes económicos parecen recoger bastante bien un cierto número de peculiaridades nacionales. [eng] Wanting to Retire as Early as Possible: Health, Job Satisfaction and Monetary Factors. Individuals’wishes in terms of retirement age vary widely between and, indeed, within countries. The proportion of over 50-year-olds still in work who want to retire as early as possible varies from around 30% in the Netherlands to 67% in Spain. This aspiration for an early retirement may depend both on economic and non-economic factors. The latter particularly include job satisfaction, health and life expectancy: a poor state of health, low life expectancy and unsatisfying work are all reasons for wanting to retire as early as possible. But this desire may also depend on economic or monetary factors and particularly on the scale of retirement rights. Early retirement becomes feasible when favourable services are available from retirement age onwards. The desire to retire early should become less frequent when rights are less favourable or become available more gradually. By combining the data from the Share survey and the indicators of individual countries’retirement rights structures recently released by the OECD, it is possible to analyse the combined role of all these factors. On an individual level, it seems that health and job satisfaction are signifi cant determiners of the desire to retire as early as possible: individuals who are on the whole satisfi ed with their job are 16% less likely to want to retire as soon as possible; declaring oneself to be in poor or very poor health has a more or less comparable inverse effect. However, these non-economic factors only explain a limited number of the differences between countries since on average they differ too insignifi cantly from country to country. On the other hand, the economic determiners seem to fairly satisfactorily explain some specifi c national characteristics. [fre] Les souhaits des individus en matière d'âge de la retraite sont très différenciés entre pays et au sein même de chaque pays. La proportion d'individus de plus de 50 ans et encore en emploi qui souhaitent prendre leur retraite le plus rapidement possible varie d'environ 30 % aux Pays-Bas à 67 % en Espagne. Cette aspiration à un départ rapide peut dépendre à la fois de facteurs économiques et non économiques. Les facteurs non économiques incluent notamment la satisfaction au travail, la santé ou encore l'espérance de vie : un état de santé dégradé, une faible espérance de vie et un travail peu satisfaisant sont autant de raisons de vouloir prendre sa retraite le plus rapidement possible. Mais ce souhait peut aussi dépendre de facteurs économiques ou monétaires et notamment du barème des droits à retraite. Des prestations élevées dès l'âge d'ouverture des droits permettent d'envisager un départ précoce. Des droits plus faibles ou plus progressifs avec l'âge devraient rendre ce souhait moins fréquent. En combinant les données de l'enquête Share et des indicateurs de structure des droits à retraite par pays récemment proposés par l'OCDE, il est possible d'analyser le rôle conjoint de tous ces facteurs. Au niveau individuel, il apparaît que la santé et la satisfaction au travail constituent des déterminants importants du souhait de prendre sa retraite le plus tôt possible : être globalement satisfait de son travail fait baisser d'environ 16 points la probabilité de souhaiter prendre sa retraite le plus tôt possible, se déclarer en mauvaise ou très mauvaise santé a un effet inverse d'ampleur à peu près comparable. Mais ces facteurs non économiques n'expliquent qu'une part limitée des différences entre pays car leurs moyennes sont trop peu différenciées d'un pays à l'autre. En revanche, les déterminants économiques semblent assez bien rendre compte d'un certain nombre de spécificités nationales.

Suggested Citation

  • Didier Blanchet & Thierry Debrand, 2007. "Souhaiter prendre sa retraite le plus tôt possible : santé, satisfaction au travail et facteurs monétaires," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 403(1), pages 39-62.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2007_num_403_1_7087
    DOI: 10.3406/estat.2007.7087
    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2007.7087
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    1. Charlotte Geay & Grégoire de Lagasnerie & Makram Larguem, 2015. "Intégrer les dépenses de santé dans un modèle de microsimulation dynamique : le cas des dépenses de soins de ville," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 481(1), pages 211-234.
    2. Emmanuel Duguet & Christine Le Clainche, 2014. "The Effect of Non-Work Related Health Events on Career Outcomes: An Evaluation in the French Labor Market," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 124(3), pages 437-465.
    3. Thomas Barnay, 2016. "Health, work and working conditions: a review of the European economic literature," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 17(6), pages 693-709, July.
    4. Emmanuel Duguet & Christine Le Clainche, 2012. "The impact of health events on individual labor market histories : the message from difference in differences with exact matching," Working Papers halshs-00674560, HAL.
    5. Thierry Debrand & Nicolas Sirven, 2009. "What are the Motivations of Pathways to Retirement in Europe: Individual, Familial, Professional Situation or Social Protection Systems?," Working Papers DT28, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Oct 2009.
    6. Thomas Barnay & Emmanuel Duguet & Christine Le Clainche & Mathieu Narcy & Yann Videau, 2014. "L’impact du handicap sur les trajectoires d’emploi : une comparaison public-privé," Erudite Working Paper 2014-05, Erudite.
    7. Thierry Debrand & Nicolas Sirven, 2009. "Quelles sont les motivations des départs à la retraite en Europe : situation personnelle, familiale, professionnelle, ou rôle de la protection sociale ?," Working Papers DT26, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Jun 2009.
    8. Catherine Pollak, 2012. "Employed and Happy despite Weak Health? Labour Market Participation and Job Quality of Older Workers with Disabilities," Working Papers DT45, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Mar 2012.
    9. Emmanuel Duguet & Christine Le Clainche, 2020. "The Socioeconomic and Gender Impacts of Health Events on Employment Transitions in France: A Panel Data Study," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(3), pages 449-483.
    10. Marion Bachelet & Magali Beffy & Didier Blanchet, 2011. "Projeter l’impact des réformes des retraites sur l’activité des 55 ans et plus : une comparaison de trois modèles," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 441(1), pages 123-143.
    11. Sandy Tubeuf & Florence Jusot & Marion Devaux & Catherine Sermet, 2008. "Social heterogeneity in self-reported health status and measurement of inequalities in health," Working Papers DT12, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Jun 2008.
    12. Mohamed Ali Ben Halima & Thierry Debrand & Camille Regaert, 2011. "Arrêts maladie : comprendre les disparités départementales," Working Papers DT39, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Feb 2011.
    13. Sophie Buffeteau & Emmanuelle Crenner & Sylvie Le Minez & Didier Blanchet, 2011. "Le modèle de microsimulation Destinie 2 : principales caractéristiques et premiers résultats," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 441(1), pages 101-121.
    14. Catherine Pollak & Nicolas Sirven, 2011. "The social economy of ageing : Job quality and pathways beyond the labour market in Europe," Post-Print halshs-00639928, HAL.
    15. Emmanuel Duguet & Christine Le Clainche, 2014. "The Impact of Health Events on Individual Labor Market Histories: the Message from Difference in Differences with Exact Matching / L'impact des événements de santé sur la carrière professionnelle : un," Working Papers halshs-00966963, HAL.
    16. Mohamed Ali Ben Halima & Thierry Debrand & Camille Regaert, 2012. "Sick Leaves: Understanding Disparities Between French Departments," Working Papers DT50, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Oct 2012.
    17. repec:dau:papers:123456789/3481 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Emmanuel Duguet & Christine le Clainche, 2012. "Chronic Illnesses and Injuries: An Evaluation of their Impact on Occupation and Revenues," Working Papers 12-02, LAMETA, Universtiy of Montpellier, revised Jan 2012.
    19. repec:dau:papers:123456789/423 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7004 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Charlotte Geay & Grégoire de Lagasnerie & Makram Larguem, 2014. "Evolution of outpatient healthcare expenditure due to ageing in 2030, a dynamic micro-simulation model for France," Sciences Po publications 28, Sciences Po.

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