IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Determinants of R&D Investment: A Survey of the Empirical Research

  • Bettina Becker

    (School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, UK)

This paper offers an extensive survey and a critical discussion of the empirical literature on the driving factors of R&D. These factors are subsumed under five broad types. The paper first summarises the key predictions from theory regarding each type's R&D effect. It then examines for which factors differences in the theoretical predictions can also be found in empirical studies, and for which factors the empirical evidence is more unanimous. As the focus is on the empirical literature, methodological issues are also highlighted. The major factor types identified in the literature are, individual firm or industry characteristics, particularly internal finance and sales; competition in product markets; R&D tax credits and subsidies; location and resource related factors, such as spillovers from university research within close geographic proximity, membership of a research joint venture and cooperation with research centres, and the human capital embodied in knowledge workers; and spillovers from foreign R&D. Although on balance there is a consensus regarding the R&D effects of most factors, there is also variation in results. Recent work suggests that accounting for nonlinearities is one area of research that may explain and encompass contradictory findings.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/sbe/RePEc/lbo/lbowps/Becker_09.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Department of Economics, Loughborough University in its series Discussion Paper Series with number 2013_09.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Aug 2013
Date of revision: Sep 2013
Handle: RePEc:lbo:lbowps:2013_09
Contact details of provider: Postal: Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU
Phone: +44 (0) 1509 222701
Fax: +44 (0) 1509 223910
Web page: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/sbe/research/economics/index.html

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. repec:sen:rebelj:v:lv:y:2010:i:3:p:346-363 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Bronwyn H. Hall, Albert N. Link and John T. Scott., 2000. "Barriers Inhibiting Industry from Partnering with Universities: Evidence from the Advanced Technology Program," Economics Working Papers E00-290, University of California at Berkeley.
  3. Hyytinen, Ari & Toivanen, Otto, 2005. "Do financial constraints hold back innovation and growth?: Evidence on the role of public policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1385-1403, November.
  4. Philippe Askenazy & Christophe Cahn & Delphine Irac, 2013. "Competition, R&D, and the cost of innovation: evidence for France," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(2), pages 293-311, April.
  5. Bettina Becker & Stephen Hall, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment in R&D and Exchange Rate Uncertainty," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 207-223, April.
  6. Richard Harris & John Moffat, 2011. "R&D, Innovation and Exporting," SERC Discussion Papers 0073, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
  7. Paul A. David & Bronwyn H. Hall & Andrew A. Toole, 1999. "Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7373, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Hall, Browyn H. & Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2000. "Universities as Research Partners," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1np920r9, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  9. Michele Cincera & Dirk Czarnitzki & Susanne Thorwarth, 2009. "Efficiency of public spending in support of R&D activities," European Economy - Economic Papers 376, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  10. Nigel Pain, 2003. "What Determines Industrial R&D Expenditure in the UK?," NIESR Discussion Papers 131, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
  11. Charles Bérubé & Marc Duhamel & Daniel Ershov, 2012. "Market Incentives for Business Innovation: Results from Canada," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 47-65, March.
  12. Maria Laura Parisi & Alessandro Sembenelli, 2001. "Is Private R&D Spending Sensitive to Its Price? Empirical Evidence on Panel Data for Italy," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 493, Boston College Department of Economics.
  13. Coe, David T. & Helpman, Elhanan, 1995. "International R&D spillovers," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 859-887, May.
  14. Feldman, Maryann P. & Kelley, Maryellen R., 2006. "The ex ante assessment of knowledge spillovers: Government R&D policy, economic incentives and private firm behavior," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1509-1521, December.
  15. Hall, Bronwyn & Van Reenen, John, 2000. "How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 449-469, April.
  16. Cassiman, Bruno & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2003. "R&D Cooperation Between Firms and Universities: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgian Manufacturing," CEPR Discussion Papers 3951, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Issues in Assessing the Contribution of Research and Development to Productivity Growth," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 17-45 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Katrin Hussinger, 2008. "R&D and subsidies at the firm level: an application of parametric and semiparametric two-step selection models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 729-747.
  19. Bravo-Ortega, Claudio & García Marín, Álvaro, 2011. "R&D and Productivity: A Two Way Avenue?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 1090-1107, July.
  20. Gorodnichenko, Yuriy & Svejnar, Jan & Terrell, Katherine, 2008. "Globalization and Innovation in Emerging Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 3299, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  21. Alex Coad & Rekha Rao, 2010. "Firm growth and R&D expenditure," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(2), pages 127-145.
  22. Jože P. Damijan & Črt Kostevc & Sašo Polanec, 2010. "From Innovation to Exporting or Vice Versa?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3), pages 374-398, 03.
  23. Dirk Czarnitzki, 2006. "Research And Development In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: The Role Of Financial Constraints And Public Funding," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 53(3), pages 335-357, 07.
  24. Michael Polder & Erik Veldhuizen, 2012. "Innovation and Competition in the Netherlands: Testing the Inverted-U for Industries and Firms," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 67-91, March.
  25. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  26. Brown, James R. & Floros, Ioannis V., 2012. "Access to private equity and real firm activity: Evidence from PIPEs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 151-165.
  27. Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-70, December.
  28. Cassiman, Bruno & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2001. "Foreign subsidiaries as channel of international technology diffusion. Some direct firm level evidence from Belgium," IESE Research Papers D/441, IESE Business School.
  29. Aghion, Philippe & Blundell, Richard & Griffith, Rachel & Howitt, Peter & Prantl, Susanne, 2006. "The effects of entry on incumbent innovation and productivity," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Competition and Innovation SP II 2006-18, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  30. Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
  31. James D. Adams & Eric P. Chiang & Jeffrey L. Jensen, 2003. "The Influence of Federal Laboratory R&D on Industrial Research," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1003-1020, November.
  32. Mario Kafouros, 2005. "R&D and productivity growth: Evidence from the UK," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(6), pages 479-497.
  33. Xulia González & Consuelo Pazó, 2005. "Do public subsidies stimulate private R&D spending?," Working Papers 0601, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
  34. Chaim Fershtman & Ariel Pakes, 2000. "A Dynamic Oligopoly with Collusion and Price Wars," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(2), pages 207-236, Summer.
  35. Joachim Wagner, 2005. "Exports and Productivity: A survey of the evidence from firm level data," Working Paper Series in Economics 4, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  36. Chiara Criscuolo & Jonathan E. Haskel & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2005. "Global Engagement and the Innovation Activities of Firms," NBER Working Papers 11479, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  37. Mansfield, Edwin & Schwartz, Mark & Wagner, Samuel, 1981. "Imitation Costs and Patents: An Empirical Study," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(364), pages 907-18, December.
  38. Karlsson, Charlie & Andersson, Martin, 2005. "The Location of Industry R&D and the Location of University R&D - How are They related?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 38, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  39. Wolfgang Keller, 2004. "International Technology Diffusion," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 752-782, September.
  40. James R. Brown & Steven M. Fazzari & Bruce C. Petersen, 2009. "Financing Innovation and Growth: Cash Flow, External Equity, and the 1990s R&D Boom," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 151-185, 02.
  41. Lopez, Alberto, 2008. "Determinants of R&D cooperation: Evidence from Spanish manufacturing firms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 113-136, January.
  42. Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2002. "R&D Cooperation and Spillovers: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1169-1184, September.
  43. Blomström, Magnus & Kokko, Ari, 1996. "Multinational Corporations and Spillovers," CEPR Discussion Papers 1365, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  44. Aerts, Kris & Schmidt, Tobias, 2008. "Two for the price of one?: Additionality effects of R&D subsidies: A comparison between Flanders and Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 806-822, June.
  45. Boone, J., 2004. "A New Way to Measure Competition," Discussion Paper 2004-004, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
  46. Sunil Kanwar & Robert E Evanson, 2004. "Does Intellectual Property Protection Spur Technological Change?," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000000455, David K. Levine.
  47. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "The effects of public R&D subsidies on firms' innovation activities: the case of Eastern Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-10, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  48. Bronwyn Hall, 2004. "The financing of research and development," Chapters, in: Financial Systems, Corporate Investment in Innovation, and Venture Capital, chapter 2 Edward Elgar.
  49. Carl Davidson & Raymond Deneckere, 1984. "Excess Capacity and Collusion," Discussion Papers 675, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  50. Bettina Becker & Stephen Hall, 2013. "Do R&D strategies in high-tech sectors differ from those in low-tech sectors? An alternative approach to testing the pooling assumption," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 183-202, May.
  51. Blalock, Garrick & Gertler, Paul J., 2009. "How firm capabilities affect who benefits from foreign technology," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 192-199, November.
  52. Rachel Griffith & Rupert Harrison & John Van Reenen, 2004. "How special is the special relationship? Using the impact of US R&D spillovers on UK firms as a test of technology sourcing," IFS Working Papers W04/32, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  53. Carter Bloch, 2005. "R&D investment and internal finance: the cash flow effect," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 213-223.
  54. Walde, Klaus & Woitek, Ulrich, 2004. "R&D expenditure in G7 countries and the implications for endogenous fluctuations and growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 91-97, January.
  55. Serapio Jr., Manuel G. & Dalton, Donald H., 1999. "Globalization of industrial R&D: an examination of foreign direct investments in R&D in the United States," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 303-316, March.
  56. Jan Boone, 2008. "Competition: Theoretical Parameterizations and Empirical Measures," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 164(4), pages 587-611, December.
  57. Gassmann, Oliver & von Zedtwitz, Maximilian, 1999. "New concepts and trends in international R&D organization," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 231-250, March.
  58. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 2000. "Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Are Useful: A Comment On Kaplan And Zingales," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(2), pages 695-705, May.
  59. Giovanni Cerulli & Bianca Potì, 2012. "Evaluating the robustness of the effect of public subsidies on firms’ R&D: an application to Italy," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 0, pages 287-320, November.
  60. Robert E. Lucas & Jr., 1967. "Adjustment Costs and the Theory of Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 321.
  61. Petr Hanel & Dirk Czarnitzki & Julio Miguel Rosa, 2005. "Evaluating the Impact of R&D Tax Credits on Innovation: A Microeconometric Study on Canadian Firms," Cahiers de recherche 05-01, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  62. Steven Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1987. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," NBER Working Papers 2387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  63. David T. Coe & Elhanan Helpman & Alexander W. Hoffmaister, 2008. "International R&D Spillovers and Institutions," NBER Working Papers 14069, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  64. Aghion, P. & Howitt, P., 1989. "A Model Of Growth Through Creative Destruction," Working papers 527, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  65. Salop, Steven, 1977. "The Noisy Monopolist: Imperfect Information, Price Dispersion and Price Discrimination," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 393-406, October.
  66. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gril98-1, December.
  67. Dirk Czarnitzki & Bernd Ebersberger & Andreas Fier, 2007. "The relationship between R&D collaboration, subsidies and R&D performance: Empirical evidence from Finland and Germany," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 1347-1366.
  68. Rufin Baghana & Pierre Mohnen, 2009. "Effectiveness of R&D tax incentives in small and large enterprises in Québec," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 91-107, June.
  69. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Endogenous Technological Change," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2135, David K. Levine.
  70. Bronwyn H. Hall & Francesca Lotti & Jacques Mairesse, 2008. "Innovation and Productivity in SMEs: Empirical Evidence for Italy," NBER Working Papers 14594, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  71. Dirk Czarnitzki & Hanna Hottenrott, 2011. "Financial Constraints: Routine Versus Cutting Edge R&D Investment," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 121-157, 03.
  72. Benoît Mulkay & Jacques Mairesse, 2013. "The R&D Tax Credit in France: Assessment and Ex-Ante Evaluation of the 2008 Reform," NBER Working Papers 19073, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  73. Laura Abramovsky & Rupert Harrison & Helen Simpson, 2007. "University research and the location of business R&D," IFS Working Papers W07/02, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  74. Hagedoorn, John, 2002. "Inter-firm R&D partnerships: an overview of major trends and patterns since 1960," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 477-492, May.
  75. Branstetter, Lee, 2006. "Is foreign direct investment a channel of knowledge spillovers? Evidence from Japan's FDI in the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 325-344, March.
  76. Morten S. Henningsen & Torbjørn Hægeland & Jarle Møen, 2012. "Estimating the additionality of R&D subsidies using proposal evaluation data to control for firms’ R&D intentions," Discussion Papers 729, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  77. James D. Adams, 2002. "Comparative localization of academic and industrial spillovers," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(3), pages 253-278, July.
  78. Griliches, Zvi, 1986. "Productivity, R&D, and the Basic Research at the Firm Level in the 1970's," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 141-54, March.
  79. Barbara J. Spencer & James A. Brander, 1983. "International R&D Rivalry and Industrial Strategy," NBER Working Papers 1192, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  80. von Zedtwitz, Maximilian & Gassmann, Oliver, 2002. "Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: four different patterns of managing research and development," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 569-588, May.
  81. Dasgupta, Partha & Stiglitz, Joseph, 1980. "Industrial Structure and the Nature of Innovative Activity," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(358), pages 266-93, June.
  82. Meuleman, M. & De Maeseneire, W., 2008. "Do R&D subsidies affect SME's: access to external financing," Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Working Paper Series 2008-12, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.
  83. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  84. Clemenz, Gerhard, 1990. "International R&D competition and trade policy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 93-113, February.
  85. Richard Harris & Mary Trainor, 2011. "A matching analysis of why some firms in peripheral regions undertake R&D whereas others do not," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(4), pages 367-385.
  86. Caves, Richard E., 1985. "International trade and industrial organization: Problems, solved and unsolved," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 377-395, August.
  87. Aghion, Philippe & Askenazy, Philippe & Berman, Nicolas & Cette, Gilbert & Eymard, Laurent, 2012. "Credit Constraints and the Cyclicality of R&D Investment: Evidence from France," Scholarly Articles 12490632, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  88. Bronwyn H. Hall & Zvi Griliches & Jerry A. Hausman, 1984. "Patents and R&D: Is There A Lag?," NBER Working Papers 1454, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  89. Dominique Guellec & Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, 2000. "The Impact of Public R&D Expenditure on Business R&D," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2000/4, OECD Publishing.
  90. John Hagedoorn & Rajneesh Narula, 1996. "Choosing Organizational Modes of Strategic Technology Partnering: International and Sectoral Differences," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(2), pages 265-284, June.
  91. D. Czarnitzki & H. Hottenrot, 2010. "Financing Constraints for Industrial Innovation: What Do We Know?," Review of Business and Economic Literature, Intersentia, vol. 55(3), pages 346-363, September.
  92. Richard Harris & Qian Cher Li, 2009. "Exporting, R&D, and absorptive capacity in UK establishments," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(1), pages 74-103, January.
  93. Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2004. "Mapping the Two Faces of R&D: Productivity Growth in a Panel of OECD Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 883-895, November.
  94. Hall, Bronwyn H. & Mairesse, Jacques, 1995. "Exploring the relationship between R&D and productivity in French manufacturing firms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 263-293, January.
  95. Paul Krugman, 1990. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," NBER Working Papers 3275, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  96. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  97. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
  98. Hall, Bronwyn H. & Lerner, Josh, 2010. "The Financing of R&D and Innovation," MERIT Working Papers 012, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  99. James D. Adams & Eric P. Chiang & Katara Starkey, 2000. "Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers," NBER Working Papers 7843, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  100. Kaplan, Steven N & Zingales, Luigi, 1997. "Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(1), pages 169-215, February.
  101. Lach, Saul, 2002. "Do R&D Subsidies Stimulate or Displace Private R&D? Evidence from Israel," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 369-90, December.
  102. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hussinger, Katrin, 2004. "The Link Between R&D Subsidies, R&D Spending and Technological Performance," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-56, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  103. Brown, James R. & Petersen, Bruce C., 2011. "Cash holdings and R&D smoothing," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 694-709, June.
  104. Bos, Jaap W.B. & Kolari, James W. & van Lamoen, Ryan C.R., 2013. "Competition and innovation: Evidence from financial services," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1590-1601.
  105. Paloma López-García & José Manuel Montero & Enrique Moral-Benito, 2012. "Business cycles and investment in intangibles: evidence from Spanish firms," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 1219, Banco de Espa�a.
  106. Oliviero Carboni, 2011. "R&D subsidies and private R&D expenditures: evidence from Italian manufacturing data," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(4), pages 419-439.
  107. Steven N. Kaplan & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Are Not Valid Measures Of Financing Constraints," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(2), pages 707-712, May.
  108. Comin, D. & Gertler, M., 2003. "Medium Term Business Cycles," Working Papers 03-05, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  109. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Productivity, R&D, and Basic Research at the Firm Level in the 1970s," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 82-99 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  110. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hottenrott, Hanna, 2012. "Collaborative R&D as a strategy to attenuate financing constraints," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-049, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  111. Dominique Guellec & Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, 2001. "R&D and Productivity Growth: Panel Data Analysis of 16 OECD Countries," OECD Economic Studies, OECD Publishing, vol. 2001(2), pages 103-126.
  112. Zvi Griliches, 1991. "The Search for R&D Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 3768, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  113. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Lopes-Bento, Cindy, 2013. "Value for money? New microeconometric evidence on public R&D grants in Flanders," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 76-89.
  114. Aghion, Philippe, et al, 2001. "Competition, Imitation and Growth with Step-by-Step Innovation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(3), pages 467-92, July.
  115. David T. Coe & Elhanan Helpman & Alexander Hoffmaister, 1995. "North-South R&D Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 5048, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  116. Griffith, Rachel & Harrison, Rupert & Simpson, Helen, 2006. "Product Market Reform and Innovation in the EU," CEPR Discussion Papers 5849, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  117. Bronwyn H. Hall, 2010. "Measuring the Returns to R&D: The Depreciation Problem," NBER Chapters, in: Contributions in Memory of Zvi Griliches, pages 341-381 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  118. Holger Gorg & Eric Strobl, 2007. "The Effect of R&D Subsidies on Private R&D," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 74(294), pages 215-234, 05.
  119. Dunning, John H, 1979. "Explaining Changing Patterns of International Production: In Defence of the Eclectic Theory," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 41(4), pages 269-95, November.
  120. Laura Abramovsky & Helen Simpson, 2011. "Geographic proximity and firm--university innovation linkages: evidence from Great Britain," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(6), pages 949-977, November.
  121. DUGUET Emmanuel, 2004. "Are R&D subsidies a substitute or a complement to privately funded R&D? Evidence from France using propensity score methods for non- experimental data," Public Economics 0411007, EconWPA.
  122. Garcia, Abraham & Mohnen, Pierre, 2010. "Impact of government support on R&D and innovation," MERIT Working Papers 034, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  123. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-96, September.
  124. Philippe Aghion & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt & Susanne Prantl, 2004. "Entry and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Microlevel Panel Data," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(2-3), pages 265-276, 04/05.
  125. Kamien, Morton I & Schwartz, Nancy L, 1978. "Self-Financing of an R&D Project," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(3), pages 252-61, June.
  126. Dirk Czarnitzki & Hanna Hottenrott, 2011. "R&D investment and financing constraints of small and medium-sized firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 65-83, January.
  127. John Cantwell & Simona Iammarino, 2000. "Multinational Corporations and the Location of Technological Innovation in the UK Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(4), pages 317-332.
  128. Hagedoorn, John & Link, Albert N. & Vonortas, Nicholas S., 2000. "Research partnerships1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 567-586, April.
  129. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1988. "Innovation in Large and Small Firms: An Empirical Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 678-90, September.
  130. Driver, Ciaran & Guedes, Maria João Coelho, 2012. "Research and development, cash flow, agency and governance: UK large companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(9), pages 1565-1577.
  131. Christopher F Baum & Mustafa Caglayan & Oleksandr Talavera, 2012. "R&D Expenditures and Geographical Sales Diversification," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 794, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 12 Nov 2012.
  132. Dirk Czarnitzki & Georg Licht, 2006. "Additionality of public R&D grants in a transition economy," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(1), pages 101-131, 03.
  133. Irwin, Douglas A. & Klenow, Peter J., 1996. "High-tech R&D subsidies Estimating the effects of Sematech," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-4), pages 323-344, May.
  134. Autant-Bernard, Corinne, 2001. "Science and knowledge flows: evidence from the French case," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1069-1078, August.
  135. Xulia González & Jordi Jaumandreu & Consuelo Pazó, 2001. "Barriers to innovation and subsidy e¤ectiveness," Working Papers 0112, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
  136. Richard C. Levin & Peter C. Reiss, 1988. "Cost-Reducing and Demand-Creating R&D with Spillovers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(4), pages 538-556, Winter.
  137. Brown, James R. & Petersen, Bruce C., 2009. "Why has the investment-cash flow sensitivity declined so sharply? Rising R&D and equity market developments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 971-984, May.
  138. Adam B. Jaffe, 2002. "Building Programme Evaluation into the Design of Public Research-Support Programmes," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(1), pages 22-34, Spring.
  139. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  140. Schmidt, Tobias, 2005. "Knowledge Flows and R&D Co-operation: Firm-level Evidence from Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-22 [rev.], ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  141. Ricardo J. Caballero & Adam B. Jaffe, 1993. "How High are the Giants' Shoulders: An Empirical Assessment of Knowledge Spillovers and Creative Destruction in a Model of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 4370, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  142. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction," Scholarly Articles 12490578, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  143. Vania Sena, 2004. "The Return of the Prince of Denmark: A Survey on Recent Developments in the Economics of Innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(496), pages F312-F332, 06.
  144. Ito, Banri & Wakasugi, Ryuhei, 2007. "What factors determine the mode of overseas R&D by multinationals? Empirical evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1275-1287, October.
  145. Laura Abramovsky & Elisabeth Kremp & Alberto Lopez & Tobias Schmidt & Helen Simpson, 2009. "Understanding co-operative innovative activity: evidence from four European countries," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 243-265.
  146. Philippe Askenazy & Christophe Cahn & Delphine Irac, 2008. "Competition, R&D and the cost of innovation," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586690, HAL.
  147. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Ebersberger, Bernd, 2010. "Do direct R&D subsidies lead to the monopolization of R&D in the economy?," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-078, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  148. Jeffrey BERNSTEIN & Theofanis P. MAMUNEAS, 2005. "Depreciation Estimation, R&D Capital Stock, and North American Manufacturing Productivity Growth," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 79-80, pages 383-404.
  149. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-306, December.
  150. Richard R. Nelson, 1959. "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 297.
  151. Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-82, January.
  152. Chaim Fershtman & Eitan Muller, 1986. "Capital Investments and Price Agreements in Semicollusive Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(2), pages 214-226, Summer.
  153. Cameron, Gavin & Proudman, James & Redding, Stephen, 2005. "Technological convergence, R&D, trade and productivity growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 775-807, April.
  154. Keith E. Maskus & Rebecca Neumann & Tobias Seidel, 2011. "How National and International Financial Development Affect Industrial R&D," CESifo Working Paper Series 3480, CESifo Group Munich.
  155. Min Ouyang, 2011. "On the Cyclicality of R&D," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 542-553, May.
  156. Van Reenen, John, 1997. "Why has Britain had slower R&D growth?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 493-507, December.
  157. Shapiro, Carl & Willig, Robert D, 1990. "On the Antitrust Treatment of Production Joint Ventures," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 113-30, Summer.
  158. David B. Audretsch, 1995. "Innovation and Industry Evolution," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262011468, June.
  159. Boris Lokshin & Pierre Mohnen, 2012. "How effective are level-based R&D tax credits? Evidence from the Netherlands," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(12), pages 1527-1538, April.
  160. Woodward, Douglas & Figueiredo, Octavio & Guimaraes, Paulo, 2006. "Beyond the Silicon Valley: University R&D and high-technology location," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 15-32, July.
  161. Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted U Relationship," NBER Working Papers 9269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  162. John H Dunning, 1988. "The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(1), pages 1-31, March.
  163. Harris, Christopher & Howitt, Peter & Vickers, John & Aghion, Philippe, 2001. "Competition, Imitation and Growth with Step-by-Step Innovation," Scholarly Articles 12375013, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  164. Chiara Peroni & Ivete Ferreira, 2012. "Competition and Innovation in Luxembourg," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 93-117, March.
  165. David Hillier & Julio Pindado & Valdoceu de Queiroz & Chabela de la Torre, 2011. "The impact of country-level corporate governance on research and development," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(1), pages 76-98, January.
  166. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-37, December.
  167. Belderbos, Rene & Carree, Martin A & Diederen, Bert & Lokshin, Boris & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2003. "Heterogeneity in R&D Cooperation Strategies," CEPR Discussion Papers 4021, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  168. Fatas, Antonio, 2000. " Do Business Cycles Cast Long Shadows? Short-Run Persistence and Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 147-62, June.
  169. Driffield, Nigel, 2001. "The Impact of Domestic Productivity of Inward Investment in the UK," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 69(1), pages 103-19, January.
  170. Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2001. "Measuring the cost effectiveness of an R&D tax credit for the UK," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 782, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  171. David Greenaway & Richard Kneller, 2007. "Firm heterogeneity, exporting and foreign direct investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(517), pages F134-F161, 02.
  172. Spiros Bougheas & Holger Görg & Eric Strobl, 2003. "Is R & D Financially Constrained? Theory and Evidence from Irish Manufacturing," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 159-174, March.
  173. Jeffrey L. Furman & Margaret K. Kyle & Iain Cockburn & Rebecca M. Henderson, 2010. "Public and Private Spillovers: Location and the Productivity of Pharmaceutical Research," NBER Chapters, in: Contributions in Memory of Zvi Griliches, pages 165-188 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  174. Veugelers, Reinhilde & Houte, Peter Vanden, 1990. "Domestic R&D in the presence of multinational enterprises," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-15.
  175. Geroski, P A & Walters, C F, 1995. "Innovative Activity over the Business Cycle," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(431), pages 916-28, July.
  176. Wang, Eric C., 2010. "Determinants of R&D investment: The Extreme-Bounds-Analysis approach applied to 26 OECD countries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 103-116, February.
  177. Jaffe, Adam B, 1988. "Demand and Supply Influences in R&D Intensity and Productivity Growth," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 431-37, August.
  178. Kesteloot, Katrien & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1995. "Stable R&D Cooperation with Spillovers," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(4), pages 651-72, Winter.
  179. Nigel Driffield & James H Love & Stefano Menghinello, 2010. "The multinational enterprise as a source of international knowledge flows: Direct evidence from Italy," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 41(2), pages 350-359, February.
  180. Yannis Caloghirou & Stavros Ioannides & Nicholas S. Vonortas, 2003. "Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 541-570, 09.
  181. Martin Falk, 2006. "What drives business Research and Development (R&D) intensity across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(5), pages 533-547.
  182. O'Mahony, Mary & Vecchi, Michela, 2009. "R&D, knowledge spillovers and company productivity performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 35-44, February.
  183. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
  184. Matthew Rafferty, 2003. "Do Business Cycles Influence Long-Run Growth? The Effect of Aggregate Demand on Firm-Financed R&D Expenditures," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 29(4), pages 607-618, Fall.
  185. Özçelik, Emre & Taymaz, Erol, 2008. "R&D support programs in developing countries: The Turkish experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 258-275, March.
  186. Roderik Ponds & Frank van Oort & Koen Frenken, 2007. "The geographical and institutional proximity of research collaboration," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(3), pages 423-443, 08.
  187. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521293853 is not listed on IDEAS
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lbo:lbowps:2013_09. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Huw Edwards)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.