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Knowledge Flows and R&D Co-operation: Firm-level Evidence from Germany

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  • Tobias Schmidt

    (ZEW Mannheim)

Abstract

This paper analyzes the determinants of R&D co-operation among German manufacturing firms. Using firm level data from the Third Community Innovation Survey from Germany, we focus on the role of spillovers in explaining R&D cooperation. We also investigate firms’ decisions to cooperate with research institutions or with suppliers and customers. Implementing a two-step estimation procedure, we find a significant effect of knowledge flows on the probability of R&D co-operation in most model specifications. Additionally, we show that firms with high intramural R&D budgets are more likely to cooperate with universities and research institutions than with suppliers and customers.

Suggested Citation

  • Tobias Schmidt, 2005. "Knowledge Flows and R&D Co-operation: Firm-level Evidence from Germany," Development and Comp Systems 0506006, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0506006
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 69-85, Fall.
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    3. Röller, Lars-Hendrik & Siebert, Ralph & Tombak, Mihkel, 1997. "Why Firms Form Research Joint Ventures: Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 1654, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Kamien, Morton I. & Zang, Israel, 2000. "Meet me halfway: research joint ventures and absorptive capacity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 995-1012, October.
    5. Lopez, Alberto, 2008. "Determinants of R&D cooperation: Evidence from Spanish manufacturing firms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 113-136, January.
    6. Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2002. "R&D Cooperation and Spillovers: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1169-1184, September.
    7. Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1997. "Internal R & D expenditures and external technology sourcing," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 303-315, October.
    8. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-596, September.
    9. Kesteloot, Katrien & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1995. "Stable R&D Cooperation with Spillovers," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(4), pages 651-672, Winter.
    10. Kaiser, Ulrich, 2002. "An empirical test of models explaining research expenditures and research cooperation: evidence for the German service sector," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 747-774, June.
    11. Patrick Greenlee & Bruno Cassiman, 1999. "Product market objectives and the formation of research joint ventures," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(3), pages 115-130.
    12. Frederico Rocha, 1999. "Inter-Firm Technological Cooperation: Effects Of Absorptive Capacity, Firm-Size And Specialization," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 253-271.
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    Cited by:

    1. Avellar, Ana Paula & Kupfer, David, 2011. "Innovation and cooperation: evidence from the Brazilian innovation survey," Documentos de Proyectos 3900, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    2. Magdalena, Olczyk & Marzena, Starnawska & Izabela, Richter, 2011. "Improvement of cooperation among SMEs and other stakeholders as means of fostering innovation," MPRA Paper 33654, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2011.
    3. Spyros Arvanitis, 2009. "How do different motives for R&D cooperation affect firm performance?," KOF Working papers 09-233, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    4. Dirk Czarnitzki & Katrin Hussinger & Cédric Schneider, 2015. "R&D Collaboration with Uncertain Intellectual Property Rights," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 46(2), pages 183-204, March.
    5. Agustí Segarra, 2011. "R&D cooperation between Spanish firms and scientific partners: what is the role of tertiary education?," Working Papers XREAP2011-17, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Nov 2011.
    6. Spyros Arvanitis & Ursina Kubli & Martin Woerter, 2011. "Knowledge and Technology Transfer Activities between Firms and Universities in Switzerland: An Analysis Based on Firm Data," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 369-392.
    7. Haeussler, Carolin, 2009. "The Economics of Knowledge Regulation: An Empirical Analysis of Knowledge Flows," Discussion Papers in Business Administration 8971, University of Munich, Munich School of Management.
    8. Dirk Czarnitzki & Kornelius Kraft, 2012. "Spillovers of innovation activities and their profitability," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(2), pages 302-322, April.
    9. Birgit Aschhoff & Tobias Schmidt, 2008. "Empirical Evidence on the Success of R&D Cooperation—Happy Together?," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 33(1), pages 41-62, August.
    10. Mueller, Pamela, 2005. "Exploring the knowledge filter: how entrepreneurship and university-industry relations drive economic growth," Freiberg Working Papers 2005,17, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    11. Sofka, Wolfgang & Schmidt, Tobias, 2004. "I Like The Way You Move: An Empirical Investigation into the Mechanisms Behind First Mover and Follower Strategies," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-87, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    12. Hajek, Petr & Henriques, Roberto & Hajkova, Veronika, 2014. "Visualising components of regional innovation systems using self-organizing maps—Evidence from European regions," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 197-214.
    13. de Faria, Pedro & Lima, Francisco & Santos, Rui, 2010. "Cooperation in innovation activities: The importance of partners," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1082-1092, October.
    14. Erika Badillo & Rosina Moreno, 2012. "“What Drives the Choice of Partners in R&D Cooperation? Heterogeneity across Sectors”," AQR Working Papers 201206, University of Barcelona, Regional Quantitative Analysis Group, revised Jul 2012.
    15. Mueller, Pamela, 2006. "Exploring the knowledge filter: How entrepreneurship and university-industry relationships drive economic growth," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1499-1508, December.
    16. Sungki Lee & Donghyuk Choi & Yeonbae Kim, 2009. "Contextual Effects on the Complementarities Between R&D Activities: An Empirical Analysis of the Korean Manufacturing Industry," TEMEP Discussion Papers 200917, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Oct 2009.
    17. Bettina Becker, 2013. "The Determinants of R&D Investment: A Survey of the Empirical Research," Discussion Paper Series 2013_09, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Sep 2013.
    18. Schmidt, Tobias, 2007. "Motives for Innovation Co-operation? Evidence from the Canadian Survey of Innovation," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-018, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    19. Segarra-Blasco, Agusti­ & Arauzo-Carod, Josep-Maria, 2008. "Sources of innovation and industry-university interaction: Evidence from Spanish firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1283-1295, September.
    20. Janeiro, Pedro & Proença, Isabel & Gonçalves, Vítor da Conceição, 2013. "Open innovation: Factors explaining universities as service firm innovation sources," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(10), pages 2017-2023.
    21. Spyros Arvanitis & Ursina Kubli & Nora Sydow & Martin Woerter, 2005. "Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Activities Between Universities and Firms in Switzerland: The Main Facts," KOF Working papers 05-115, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    22. Spyros Arvanitis & Ursina Kubli & Martin Woerter, 2005. "Determinants of Knowledge and Technology Transfer Activities Between Firms and Science Institutions in Switzerland: An Analysis Based on Firm Data," KOF Working papers 05-116, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    23. Schmidt, Tobias, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Patents and Secrecy on Knowledge Spillovers," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-048, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Spillovers; R&D Co-operation; CIS 3;

    JEL classification:

    • O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth
    • P - Economic Systems

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