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Open, Semi-Open and Closed Innovators: Towards an Explanation of Degree of Openness

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  • Andres Barge-Gil

Abstract

There is much controversy in the literature over the relationship between the openness of firms' innovation strategies and firm characteristics such as size, R&D intensity and sector. We argue that the controversy arises because, both theoretically and empirically, only a binary, open vs. closed, strategy has been considered. In this paper, we distinguish among three firm strategies: open, semi-open and closed, drawing upon a panel of Spanish firms (2004-2006) using data from Community Innovation Survey (CIS)-type surveys, and two different indicators of openness. Our results show that open innovators are smaller and less R&D intensive than semi-open ones, although larger and more R&D intensive than closed innovators. These results reduce some of the controversies, and show that two conflicting forces, absorptive capacity and a “need” effect, are at stake in open innovation strategies.

Suggested Citation

  • Andres Barge-Gil, 2010. "Open, Semi-Open and Closed Innovators: Towards an Explanation of Degree of Openness," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(6), pages 577-607.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:indinn:v:17:y:2010:i:6:p:577-607
    DOI: 10.1080/13662716.2010.530839
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Du, Jingshu & Leten, Bart & Vanhaverbeke, Wim, 2014. "Managing open innovation projects with science-based and market-based partners," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 828-840.
    2. Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro & Dimitrios Pontikakis & Attila Varga, 2013. "Delocalization Patterns in University--Industry Interaction: Evidence from the Sixth R&D Framework Programme," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(10), pages 1676-1701, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. van Geenhuizen, Marina & Ye, Qing, 2014. "Responsible innovators: open networks on the way to sustainability transitions," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 28-40.
    2. repec:bla:growch:v:48:y:2017:i:3:p:336-358 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Andræs Barge-Gil, 2013. "Open Strategies and Innovation Performance," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(7), pages 585-610, October.
    4. Mercedes Rodriguez & David Doloreux & Richard Shearmur, 2016. "Innovation strategies, innovator types and openness: a study of KIBS firms in Spain," Service Business, Springer;Pan-Pacific Business Association, vol. 10(3), pages 629-649, September.
    5. Livio Cricelli & Marco Greco & Michele Grimaldi, 2016. "Assessing The Open Innovation Trends By Means Of The Eurostat Community Innovation Survey," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 20(03), pages 1-30, April.
    6. Marina Van Geenhuizen & Qing Ye, 2013. "Small Responsible Innovators and Open Innovation towards Sustainability: Networks Conditions," ERSA conference papers ersa13p1303, European Regional Science Association.
    7. Angela Rocio Vasquez-Urriago & Andrés Barge-Gil & Aurelia Modrego Rico, 2016. "Which firms benefit more from being located in a Science and Technology Park? Empirical evidence for Spain," Research Evaluation, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(1), pages 107-117.
    8. repec:spr:scient:v:104:y:2015:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-015-1628-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Isabel Díez-Vial & Marta Fernández-Olmos, 2015. "Knowledge spillovers in science and technology parks: how can firms benefit most?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 70-84, February.
    10. Francesco Galati & Barbara Bigliardi & Alberto Petroni, 2016. "Open Innovation In Food Firms: Implementation Strategies, Drivers And Enabling Factors," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 20(03), pages 1-24, April.
    11. repec:wsi:ijimxx:v:21:y:2017:i:03:n:s1363919617500256 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Andreas Braun & Laura Bockelmann, 2016. "An Individual Perspective On Open Innovation Capabilities In The Context Of Haute Cuisine," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 20(01), pages 1-24, January.
    13. Nuno Campos Pereira & Nuno Araújo & Leonardo Costa, 2016. "A counting multidimensional innovation index for SMEs," Working Papers de Economia (Economics Working Papers) 01, Católica Porto Business School, Universidade Católica Portuguesa.
    14. Greco, Marco & Grimaldi, Michele & Cricelli, Livio, 2017. "Hitting the nail on the head: Exploring the relationship between public subsidies and open innovation efficiency," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 213-225.
    15. Du, Jingshu & Leten, Bart & Vanhaverbeke, Wim, 2014. "Managing open innovation projects with science-based and market-based partners," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 828-840.
    16. Achim Hecker, 2016. "Cultural Contingencies Of Open Innovation Strategies," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 20(07), pages 1-27, October.
    17. Tomlinson, Philip R. & Fai, Felicia M., 2013. "The nature of SME co-operation and innovation: A multi-scalar and multi-dimensional analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 316-326.
    18. Michele Cincera & Pierre De Clercq & Thomas Gillet, 2015. "Optimal Openness Level and Economic Performance of Firms: Evidence from Belgian CIS Data," iCite Working Papers 2015-14, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

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