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R&D and Subsidies at the Firm Level: An Application of Parametric and Semi-Parametric Two-Step Selection Models

  • Hussinger, Katrin

This paper analyzes the effects of public R&D subsidies on R&D expenditure in the German manufacturing sector. The focus is on the question whether public R&D funding stimulates or crowds out private investment. Cross sectional data at the firm level is used. By apllying parametric and semiparametric selection models, it turns out that public funding increases firms? R&D expenditure. Altough the magnitude of the treatment effect depends on the assumptions imposed by the particular selection model.

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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 03-63.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:1493
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  1. Zvi Griliches & Jacques Mairesse, 1984. "Productivity and R&D at the Firm Level," NBER Chapters, in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 339-374 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Greene, William H, 1981. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error: Comment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(3), pages 795-98, May.
  3. Paul A. David & Bronwyn H. Hall & Andrew A. Toole, 2005. "Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence," Development and Comp Systems 0502011, EconWPA.
  4. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2000. "Evaluation methods for non-experimental data," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 427-468, January.
  5. Andrews, Donald W K & Schafgans, Marcia M A, 1998. "Semiparametric Estimation of the Intercept of a Sample Selection Model," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(3), pages 497-517, July.
  6. Cosslett, Stephen R, 1983. "Distribution-Free Maximum Likelihood Estimator of the Binary Choice Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(3), pages 765-82, May.
  7. Whitney K. Newey, 2009. "Two-step series estimation of sample selection models," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 12(s1), pages S217-S229, 01.
  8. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  9. Gallant, A Ronald & Nychka, Douglas W, 1987. "Semi-nonparametric Maximum Likelihood Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 363-90, March.
  10. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Toole, Andrew A., 2006. "Patent protection, market uncertainty, and R&D investment," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-56, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  11. Jens Matthias Arnold & Katrin Hussinger, 2005. "Export Behavior and Firm Productivity in German Manufacturing: A Firm-Level Analysis," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 141(2), pages 219-243, July.
  12. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," NBER Working Papers 6699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Kraft, Kornelius, 2000. "Haftungsregeln und Innovation," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  14. Kraft, Kornelius & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2004. "Are Credit Ratings Valuable Information?," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-07, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  15. Bronwyn H. Hall., 1989. "The Impact of Corporate Restructuring on Industrial Research and Development," Economics Working Papers 89-129, University of California at Berkeley.
  16. Aerts, Kris & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2004. "Using Innovation Survey Data to Evaluate R&D Policy: The Case of Belgium," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-55, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  17. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2009. "Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(3).
  18. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "The effects of public R&D subsidies on firms' innovation activities: the case of Eastern Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-10, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  19. Newey, Whitney K. & McFadden, Daniel, 1986. "Large sample estimation and hypothesis testing," Handbook of Econometrics, in: R. F. Engle & D. McFadden (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 36, pages 2111-2245 Elsevier.
  20. Heckman, James J, 1990. "Varieties of Selection Bias," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 313-18, May.
  21. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-96, September.
  22. Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
  23. Schafgans, Marcia M.A. & Zinde-Walsh, Victoria, 2002. "On Intercept Estimation In The Sample Selection Model," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(01), pages 40-50, February.
  24. Isabel Busom, 2000. "An Empirical Evaluation of The Effects of R&D Subsidies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 111-148.
  25. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Chamberlain, Gary, 1986. "Asymptotic efficiency in semi-parametric models with censoring," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 189-218, July.
  27. Dirk Czarnitzki, 2005. "The Extent and Evolution of Productivity Deficiency in Eastern Germany," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 211-231, October.
  28. Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1984. "The Relationship between Federal Contract R&D and Company R&D," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 73-78, May.
  29. Marcia M Schafgans & Victoria Zinde-Walsh, 2000. "On Intercept Estimation in the Sample Selection Model," STICERD - Econometrics Paper Series /2000/380, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  30. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hussinger, Katrin, 2004. "The Link Between R&D Subsidies, R&D Spending and Technological Performance," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-56, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  31. Marcia M. A. Schafgans, 2000. "On Intercept Estimation in the Sample Selection Model," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0730, Econometric Society.
  32. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1982. "Some Approaches to the Correction of Selectivity Bias," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 355-72, July.
  33. Arvanitis, Spyros & Hollenstein, Heinz & Lenz, Stephan, 2002. " The Effectiveness of Government Promotion of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): An Economic Analysis Based on Swiss Micro Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 321-40, December.
  34. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Fier, Andreas, 2003. "Publicly Funded R&D Collaborations and Patent Outcome in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-24, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  35. Chen, Songnian, 1999. "Distribution-free estimation of the random coefficient dummy endogenous variable model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 171-199, July.
  36. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521370905 is not listed on IDEAS
  37. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Fier, Andreas, 2002. "Do Innovation Subsidies Crowd Out Private Investment? Evidence from the German Service Sector," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-04, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  38. Klette, T.J. & Moen, J. & Griliches, Z., 1999. "Do Subsidies to Commercial R&D Reduce Market Failures? Microeconometric Evaluation Studies," Papers 16/99, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
  39. Tuomas Takalo & Tanja Tanayama & Otto Toivanen, 2005. "Selection Or Self-Rejection? Applications Into A Treatment," Industrial Organization 0510002, EconWPA.
  40. Dirk Czarnitzki & Bernd Ebersberger & Andreas Fier, 2007. "The relationship between R&D collaboration, subsidies and R&D performance: Empirical evidence from Finland and Germany," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 1347-1366.
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  42. Robinson, Peter M, 1988. "Root- N-Consistent Semiparametric Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(4), pages 931-54, July.
  43. Manski, C.F., 1990. "The Selection Problem," Working papers 90-12, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  44. Puhani, Patrick A, 2000. " The Heckman Correction for Sample Selection and Its Critique," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 53-68, February.
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