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The impact of R&D subsidies during the crisis

  • Hud, Martin
  • Hussinger, Katrin

This study investigates the impact of R&D subsidies on R&D investment during the past financial crisis. We conduct a treatment effects analysis and show that R&D subsidies increased R&D spending among subsidized small and medium sized firms in Germany during the crisis years. In the first crisis year, the additionality effect induced by public support was, however, smaller than in other years. This temporary decrease may be caused by an altered innovation subsidy scheme in crisis years or by a different innovation investment behavior of the subsidy recipients. We do not find support for the countercyclical innovation subsidy scheme having caused the smaller additionality effect and conclude that it is likely to be driven by subsidy recipient behavior.

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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 14-024.

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Date of creation: 2014
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:14024
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  1. Bronwyn H. Hall, 1992. "Investment and Research and Development at the Firm Level: Does the Source of Financing Matter?," NBER Working Papers 4096, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Katrin Hussinger, 2008. "R&D and subsidies at the firm level: an application of parametric and semiparametric two-step selection models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 729-747.
  3. Matthew Rafferty & Mark Funk, 2008. "Asymmetric Effects Of The Business Cycle On Firm-Financed R&D," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(5), pages 497-510.
  4. Paul A. David & Bronwyn H. Hall & Andrew A. Toole, 2005. "Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence," Development and Comp Systems 0502011, EconWPA.
  5. Philippe Aghion & Philippe Askenazy & Nicolas Berman & Gilbert Cette & Laurent Eymard, 2008. "Credit constraints and the cyclicality of R&D investment: Evidence from France," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586744, HAL.
  6. Giovanni Cerulli & Bianca Pot�, 2012. "The differential impact of privately and publicly funded R&D on R&D investment and innovation: the Italian case," Prometheus, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 113-149, March.
  7. Makkonen, Teemu, 2013. "Government science and technology budgets in times of crisis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 817-822.
  8. Xulia González & Jordi Jaumandreu & Consuelo Pazó, 2001. "Barriers to innovation and subsidy e¤ectiveness," Working Papers 0112, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
  9. Shleifer, Andrei, 1986. "Implementation Cycles," Scholarly Articles 3451303, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  10. Isabel Busom, 2000. "An Empirical Evaluation of The Effects of R&D Subsidies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 111-148.
  11. Gadi Barlevy, 2007. "On the Cyclicality of Research and Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(4), pages 1131-1164, September.
  12. Jens Matthias Arnold & Katrin Hussinger, 2003. "Export Behavior and Firm productivity in German Manufacturing. A Firm-Level Analysis," Development Working Papers 184, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  13. Klette, Tor Jakob & Moen, Jarle & Griliches, Zvi, 2000. "Do subsidies to commercial R&D reduce market failures? Microeconometric evaluation studies1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 471-495, April.
  14. Aghion, P. & Askenazy, P. & Berman, N. & Cette, G. & Eymard, L., 2008. "Credit Constraints and the Cyclicality of R&D Investment: Evidence from France," Working papers 198, Banque de France.
  15. Saint-Paul, Gilles, 1993. "Productivity growth and the structure of the business cycle," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 861-883, May.
  16. Mohnen, Pierre & Bérubé, Charles, 2007. "Are Firms That Received R&D Subsidies More Innovative?," MERIT Working Papers 015, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  17. David Romer, 1993. "The New Keynesian Synthesis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 5-22, Winter.
  18. Philip R. Lane, 2002. "The Cyclical Behaviour of Fiscal Policy: Evidence from the OECD," Trinity Economics Papers 20022, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  19. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1990. "Trade, Knowledge Spillovers, and Growth," NBER Working Papers 3485, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Charles P. Himmelberg & Bruce C. Petersen, 1991. "R&D and internal finance: a panel study of small firms in high-tech industries," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 91-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  21. Aghion, Philippe & Angeletos, George-Marios & Banerjee, Abhijit & Manova, Kalina, 2010. "Volatility and growth: Credit constraints and the composition of investment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 246-265, April.
  22. Aerts, Kris & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2004. "Using Innovation Survey Data to Evaluate R&D Policy: The Case of Belgium," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-55, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  23. Lach, Saul, 2002. "Do R&D Subsidies Stimulate or Displace Private R&D? Evidence from Israel," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 369-90, December.
  24. Takalo, Tuomas & Tanayama, Tanja & Toivanen, Otto, 2008. "Evaluating innovation policy: a structural treatment effect model of R&D subsidies," Research Discussion Papers 7/2008, Bank of Finland.
  25. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "The effects of public R&D subsidies on firms' innovation activities: the case of Eastern Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-10, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  26. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00586744 is not listed on IDEAS
  27. Min Ouyang, 2011. "On the Cyclicality of R&D," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 542-553, May.
  28. Arvanitis, Spyros & Hollenstein, Heinz & Lenz, Stephan, 2002. " The Effectiveness of Government Promotion of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): An Economic Analysis Based on Swiss Micro Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 321-40, December.
  29. DUGUET Emmanuel, 2004. "Are R&D subsidies a substitute or a complement to privately funded R&D? Evidence from France using propensity score methods for non- experimental data," Public Economics 0411007, EconWPA.
  30. Archibugi, Daniele & Filippetti, Andrea & Frenz, Marion, 2013. "Economic crisis and innovation: Is destruction prevailing over accumulation?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 303-314.
  31. Dirk Czarnitzki & Bernd Ebersberger & Andreas Fier, 2007. "The relationship between R&D collaboration, subsidies and R&D performance: Empirical evidence from Finland and Germany," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 1347-1366.
  32. Paunov, Caroline, 2012. "The global crisis and firms’ investments in innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 24-35.
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  34. Aerts, Kris & Schmidt, Tobias, 2008. "Two for the price of one?: Additionality effects of R&D subsidies: A comparison between Flanders and Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 806-822, June.
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