IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Can R&D subsidies counteract the economic crisis? – Macroeconomic effects in Germany

Listed author(s):
  • Brautzsch, Hans-Ulrich
  • Günther, Jutta
  • Loose, Brigitte
  • Ludwig, Udo
  • Nulsch, Nicole

During the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009, governments in Europe stabilized their economies by means of fiscal policy. After decades of absence, deficit spending was used to counteract the heavy decline in demand. In Germany, public spending went partially into R&D subsidies in favor of small and medium sized enterprises. Applying the standard open input–output model, the paper analyzes the macroeconomic effects of R&D subsidies on employment and production in the business cycle. Findings in the form of backward multipliers suggest that R&D subsidies have stimulated a substantial leverage effect. Almost two thirds of the costs of R&D projects are covered by the enterprises themselves. Overall, a subsidized R&D program results in a production, value added and employment effect that amounts to at least twice the initial financing. Overall, the R&D program counteracts the decline of GDP by 0.5% in the year 2009. In the year 2010 the effects are already procyclical since the German economy recovered quickly. Compared to the strongly discussed alternative uses of subsidies for private consumption, R&D spending is more effective.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733314002170
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

Volume (Year): 44 (2015)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 623-633

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:44:y:2015:i:3:p:623-633
DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2014.11.012
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
  2. Duchin, Faye & Lange, Glenn-Marie, 1995. "The choice of technology and associated changes in prices in the U.S. economy," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 335-357, August.
  3. Godin, Benoit, 2007. "Science, accounting and statistics: The input-output framework," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 1388-1403, November.
  4. Malerba, Franco, 1992. "Learning by Firms and Incremental Technical Change," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(413), pages 845-859, July.
  5. David, Paul A. & Hall, Bronwyn H. & Toole, Andrew A., 2000. "Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D? A review of the econometric evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 497-529, April.
  6. Archibugi, Daniele & Filippetti, Andrea & Frenz, Marion, 2013. "Economic crisis and innovation: Is destruction prevailing over accumulation?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 303-314.
  7. Philippe Aghion & Philippe Askenazy & Nicolas Berman & Gilbert Cette & Laurent Eymard, 2012. "Credit Constraints And The Cyclicality Of R&D Investment: Evidence From France," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(5), pages 1001-1024, October.
  8. Günther, Jutta & Michelsen, Claus & Peglow, François & Titze, Mirko & Fritsch, Michael & Noseleit, F. & Schröter, A., 2008. "Evaluierung der FuE-Projektförderung des Sächsischen Staatsministeriums für Wirtschaft und Arbeit: Endbericht," IWH-Sonderhefte 3/2008, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
  9. Nestor Terleckyj, 1980. "Direct and Indirect Effects of Industrial Research and Development on the Productivity Growth of Industries," NBER Chapters,in: New Developments in Productivity Measurement, pages 357-386 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. K. Pavitt & M. Robson & J. Townsend, 1989. "Technological Accumulation, Diversification and Organisation in UK Companies, 1945--1983," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 35(1), pages 81-99, January.
  11. Günther, Jutta & Dominguez-Lacasa, Iciar & Nulsch, Nicole & Schwartz, Michael & Slavtchev, Viktor & Titze, Mirko & Wilde, Katja, 2010. "Evaluierung des Programms des Sächsischen Staatsministeriums für Wissenschaft und Kunst (SMWK) zur Förderung von Projekten im Forschungsbereich," IWH-Sonderhefte 1/2010, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
  12. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
  13. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hanel, Petr & Rosa, Julio Miguel, 2011. "Evaluating the impact of R&D tax credits on innovation: A microeconometric study on Canadian firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 217-229, March.
  14. Milton Friedman, 1957. "Introduction to "A Theory of the Consumption Function"," NBER Chapters,in: A Theory of the Consumption Function, pages 1-6 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. González, Xulia & Pazó, Consuelo, 2008. "Do public subsidies stimulate private R&D spending?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 371-389, April.
  16. Shleifer, Andrei, 1986. "Implementation Cycles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(6), pages 1163-1190, December.
  17. Ward Romp & Jakob de Haan, 2007. "Public Capital and Economic Growth: A Critical Survey," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 8(s1), pages 6-52, 04.
  18. Björn Alecke & Timo Mitze & Janina Reinkowski & Gerhard Untiedt, 2012. "Does Firm Size make a Difference? Analysing the Effectiveness of R&D Subsidies in East Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 13(2), pages 174-195, 05.
  19. Milton Friedman, 1957. "A Theory of the Consumption Function," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie57-1, 01.
  20. Tuomas Takalo & Tanja Tanayama, 2010. "Adverse selection and financing of innovation: is there a need for R&D subsidies?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 16-41, February.
  21. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
  22. David M. Levy & Nestor E. Terleckyj, 1983. "Effects of Government R&D on Private R&D Investment and Productivity: A Macroeconomic Analysis," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(2), pages 551-561, Autumn.
  23. Isabel Busom, 2000. "An Empirical Evaluation of The Effects of R&D Subsidies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 111-148.
  24. Paunov, Caroline, 2012. "The global crisis and firms’ investments in innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 24-35.
  25. Segerstrom, Paul S, 2000. "The Long-Run Growth Effects of R&D Subsidies," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 277-305, September.
  26. Antonelli, Cristiano, 1997. "The economics of path-dependence in industrial organization," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 643-675, October.
  27. Gadi Barlevy, 2007. "On the Cyclicality of Research and Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(4), pages 1131-1164, September.
  28. Grady, Patrick & Muller, R. Andrew, 1986. "On The Use and Misuse of Input-Output Based Impact Analysis in Evaluation," MPRA Paper 22063, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  29. Hauknes, Johan & Knell, Mark, 2009. "Embodied knowledge and sectoral linkages: An input-output approach to the interaction of high- and low-tech industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 459-469, April.
  30. Daniele Archibugi & Andrea Filippetti, 2011. "Is the Economic Crisis Impairing Convergence in Innovation Performance across Europe?," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(6), pages 1153-1182, November.
  31. Raul Katz & Stephan Vaterlaus & Patrick Zenhäusern & Stephan Suter, 2010. "The impact of broadband on jobs and the German economy," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer;German National Library of Economics;Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), vol. 45(1), pages 26-34, January.
  32. Erik Dietzenbacher & Bart Los, 2002. "Externalities of R&D Expenditures," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 407-425.
  33. Aerts, Kris & Schmidt, Tobias, 2008. "Two for the price of one?: Additionality effects of R&D subsidies: A comparison between Flanders and Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 806-822, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:44:y:2015:i:3:p:623-633. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.