IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bde/wpaper/1219.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Business cycles and investment in intangibles: evidence from Spanish firms

Author

Listed:
  • Paloma López-García

    () (Banco de España)

  • José Manuel Montero

    () (Banco de España)

  • Enrique Moral-Benito

    () (Banco de España)

Abstract

This paper tests the opportunity-cost theory using a panel of Spanish firms during the period 1991-2010. Under this theory, productivity-enhancing activities, such as R&D investment, should increase during downturns because of the fall in their relative cost – in terms of forgone output –. This would imply that business cycles may have a (positive) long-term impact on productivity growth. In the spirit of Aghion et al. (2007) we allow the impact of the cycle on R&D to vary between firms with different access to credit, finding that credit constraints may reverse the countercyclicality of R&D, even if it is optimal for them. We go one step further and explore whether other productivity-enhancing activities, like on-the-job training and the purchase of patents, follow a similar pattern. We find that on-the-job training expenditures are countercyclical and, unlike R&D investment, credit constraints seem not to affect their cyclical behaviour. Investments in other intangibles, such as patent purchases, are found to be acyclical, also irrespective of financial constraints, which could suggest some kind of substitution between R&D and patent purchases over the cycle. Finally, complementarities between the different intangible investments and the traditional productive factors (labour and capital) are also investigated via production function estimates, in order to assess potential indirect effects of the cycle on long-run growth

Suggested Citation

  • Paloma López-García & José Manuel Montero & Enrique Moral-Benito, 2012. "Business cycles and investment in intangibles: evidence from Spanish firms," Working Papers 1219, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1219
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/PublicacionesSeriadas/DocumentosTrabajo/12/Fich/dt1219e.pdf
    File Function: First version, May 2012
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Aghion, Philippe & Angeletos, George-Marios & Banerjee, Abhijit & Manova, Kalina, 2010. "Volatility and growth: Credit constraints and the composition of investment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 246-265, April.
    2. Philippe Aghion & Philippe Askenazy & Nicolas Berman & Gilbert Cette & Laurent Eymard, 2012. "Credit Constraints And The Cyclicality Of R&D Investment: Evidence From France," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(5), pages 1001-1024, October.
    3. Bronwyn Hall, 2004. "The financing of research and development," Chapters,in: Financial Systems, Corporate Investment in Innovation, and Venture Capital, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. repec:lsu:lsuwpp:2003-12 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Pilar Beneito, 2001. "R&D productivity and spillovers at the firms level: evidence from Spanish panel data," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 25(2), pages 289-313, May.
    6. John Duffy & Chris Papageorgiou & Fidel Perez-Sebastian, 2004. "Capital-Skill Complementarity? Evidence from a Panel of Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 327-344, February.
    7. Matthew Rafferty, 2003. "Do Business Cycles Influence Long-Run Growth? The Effect of Aggregate Demand on Firm-Financed R&D Expenditures," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 29(4), pages 607-618, Fall.
    8. Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000. "GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
    9. Geroski, P A & Walters, C F, 1995. "Innovative Activity over the Business Cycle," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(431), pages 916-928, July.
    10. Min Ouyang, 2011. "On the Cyclicality of R&D," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 542-553, May.
    11. Hall, Bronwyn H. & Mairesse, Jacques, 1995. "Exploring the relationship between R&D and productivity in French manufacturing firms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 263-293, January.
    12. Jacques Mairesse & Bronwyn H. Hall, 1996. "Estimating the Productivity of Research and Development: An Exploration of GMM Methods Using Data on French & United States Manufacturing Firms," NBER Working Papers 5501, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Concha Artola & Veronique Genre, 2011. "Euro Area SMEs under Financial Constraints: Belief or Reality?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3650, CESifo Group Munich.
    14. Ricardo J. Caballero & Mohamad L. Hammour, 1996. "On the Timing and Efficiency of Creative Destruction," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 805-852.
    15. Simona Bovha-Padilla & Joze P. Damijan & Jozef Konings, 2009. "Financial Constraints and the Cyclicality of R&D Investment:Evidence from Slovenia," LICOS Discussion Papers 23909, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    16. Michele Cincera & Claudio Cozza & Alexander Tübke & Peter Voigt, 2011. "Doing R&D or Not (in a Crisis), That Is the Question …," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(9), pages 1525-1547, February.
    17. Geroski,Paul A. & Gregg,Paul, 1997. "Coping with Recession," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521622769, April.
    18. Gadi Barlevy, 2007. "On the Cyclicality of Research and Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(4), pages 1131-1164, September.
    19. Michele Cincera, 2012. "Doing R&D or Not (in a Crisis), That Is the Question..," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/129105, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    20. Andrew Benito & Ignacio Hernando, 2002. "Extricate: Financial Pressure and Firm Behaviour in Spain," Working Papers 0227, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hingley, Peter & Park, Walter G., 2017. "Do business cycles affect patenting? Evidence from European Patent Office filings," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 76-86.
    2. Nikolay Chernyshev, 2017. "R&D Cyclicality and Composition Effects: A Unifying Approach," CDMA Working Paper Series 201705, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
    3. Bettina Becker, 2013. "The Determinants of R&D Investment: A Survey of the Empirical Research," Discussion Paper Series 2013_09, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Sep 2013.
    4. Dan Andrews & Chiara Criscuolo, 2013. "Knowledge-Based Capital, Innovation and Resource Allocation," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1046, OECD Publishing.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    R&D; business cycle; credit constraints; panel data;

    JEL classification:

    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1219. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (María Beiro. Electronic Dissemination of Information Unit. Research Department. Banco de España). General contact details of provider: http://www.bde.es/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.