IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Immigration in Europe: Trends, Policies and Empirical Evidence

  • de la Rica, Sara

    ()

    (University of the Basque Country)

  • Glitz, Albrecht

    ()

    (Humboldt University Berlin)

  • Ortega, Francesc

    ()

    (Queens College, CUNY)

This chapter summarizes the main trends, policies and empirical evidence regarding immigration in Europe. We start by providing descriptive evidence on long-term immigration trends and current characteristics of the immigrant populations in various important European destination countries and Europe as a whole. We then discuss key policy issues in the European context, focusing on access to citizenship, asylum seeking, border enforcement, amnesties and policies to attract talent. In the second part of the chapter, we provide a survey of the large and growing literature on the recent European immigration experience, focusing on two key questions: what has been the socio-economic performance of immigrants in their destination countries and how has immigration impacted these countries' economies and native populations. We find large and highly persistent gaps in the economic performance of immigrants relative to natives in most destination countries, with only few instances of encouraging progress. Overall, there is little evidence of a detrimental effect of immigration on the economies of the host countries, which appear to respond to immigrant inflows through mechanisms more complex than simple factor price adjustments.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7778.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7778.

as
in new window

Length: 98 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Barry Chiswick and Paul Miller (eds.): Handbook on the Economics of International Migration, 1B, 2014
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7778
Contact details of provider: Postal:
IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany

Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org

Order Information: Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Email:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Torun Österberg & Björn Gustafsson, 2001. "Immigrants and the public sector budget - accounting exercises for Sweden," Journal of Population Economics, European Society for Population Economics, vol. 14(4), pages 689-708.
  2. George J. Borjas, 2006. "Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(2).
  3. Gordon H. Hanson & Antonio Spilimbergo, 2001. "Political economy, sectoral shocks, and border enforcement," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(3), pages 612-638, August.
  4. Bertoli, Simone & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús & Ortega, Francesc, 2010. "Immigration Policies and the Ecuadorian Exodus," IZA Discussion Papers 4737, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Amuedo Dorantes, Catalina & De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara, 2006. "Labor Market Assimilation of Recent Immigrants in Spain," DFAEII Working Papers 2006-01, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
  6. Simonetta LONGHI & Peter NIJKAMP & Jacques POOT, 2008. "Meta-Analysis Of Empirical Evidence On The Labour Market Impacts Of Immigration," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 27, pages 161-191.
  7. Bartel, Ann P, 1989. "Where Do the New U.S. Immigrants Live?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 371-91, October.
  8. Samuel Bentolila & Juan J. Dolado & Juan F. Jimeno, 2007. "Does Immigration Affect The Phillips Curve? Some Evidence For Spain," Working Papers wp2007_0718, CEMFI.
  9. Izquierdo, Mario & Lacuesta, Aitor & Vegas, Raquel, 2009. "Assimilation of immigrants in Spain: A longitudinal analysis," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 669-678, December.
  10. Andreas Georgiadis & Alan Manning, 2011. "Change and continuity among minority communities in Britain," Journal of Population Economics, European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(2), pages 541-568, April.
  11. Julian di Giovanni & Andrei Levchenko & Francesc Ortega, 2014. "A Global View of Cross-Border Migration," NBER Working Papers 20002, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. David Card, 1990. "The impact of the Mariel boatlift on the Miami labor market," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(2), pages 245-257, January.
  13. M. Dolores Collado & Iñigo Iturbe Ormaetxe & Guadalupe Valera, 2002. "Quantifying The Impact Of Immigration On The Spanish Welfare State," Working Papers. Serie AD 2002-04, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  14. Anna Piil Damm, 2006. "Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0607, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  15. Saiz, Albert, 2006. "Immigration and Housing Rents in American Cities," IZA Discussion Papers 2189, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  16. Peri, Giovanni & D'Amuri, Francesco, 2010. "Immigration, Jobs and Employment Protection: Evidence from Europe," Institute of European Studies, Working Paper Series qt9rp2j8m1, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley.
  17. Christian Dustmann & Francesca Fabbri, 2003. "Language proficiency and labour market performance of immigrants in the UK," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(489), pages 695-717, 07.
  18. GianMarco Ottaviano & Giovanni Peri, 2004. "The Economic Value of Cultural Diversity: Evidence from US cities," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 91, Econometric Society.
  19. Sauro Mocetti & Carmine Porello, 2010. "How does immigration affect native internal mobility? New evidence from Italy," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 748, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  20. Giovanni Peri & Chad Sparber, 2010. "Assessing Inherent Model Bias: An Application to Native Displacement in Response to Immigration," NBER Working Papers 16332, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Francesc Ortega & Libertad González & Lídia Farré Olalla, 2009. "Immigration, family responsibilities and the labor supply of skilled native women," Working Papers. Serie AD 2009-19, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  22. Yann Algan & Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz & Alan Manning, 2010. "The Economic Situation of First and Second-Generation Immigrants in France, Germany and the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(542), pages F4-F30, 02.
  23. Åslund, Olof & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2003. "Do when and where matter? Initial labor market conditions and immigrant earnings," Working Paper Series 2003:7, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  24. Alicia Adsera & Mariola Pytlikova, 2012. "The role of language in shaping international migration," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1206, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  25. Daron Acemoglu, 2001. "Directed Technical Change," NBER Working Papers 8287, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Deborah Cobb-Clark & Mathias Sinning & Steven Stillman, 2011. "Migrant Youths' Educational Achievement: The Role of Institutions," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1120, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  27. Miguel Angel Alcobendas & Núria Rodríquez-Planas, 2010. "Immigrants' Assimilation Process In A Segmented Labor Market," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 822.10, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  28. Raquel Carrasco & Juan Jimeno & A. Ortega, 2008. "The effect of immigration on the labor market performance of native-born workers: some evidence for Spain," Journal of Population Economics, European Society for Population Economics, vol. 21(3), pages 627-648, July.
  29. Olof Aslund & Lena Hensvik & Oskar Nordstrom Skans, 2009. "Seeking similarity: How immigrants and natives manage at the labor market," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0932, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  30. Leo Kaas & Christian Manger, 2012. "Ethnic Discrimination in Germany's Labour Market: A Field Experiment," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 13(1), pages 1-20, 02.
  31. Bertocchi, Graziella & Strozzi, Chiara, 2007. "The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants," CEPR Discussion Papers 6066, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  32. Libertad Gonzalez & Francesc Ortega, 2009. "Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0919, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  33. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & de la Rica, Sara, 2011. "Complements or substitutes? Task specialization by gender and nativity in Spain," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 697-707, October.
  34. David Card & John E. DiNardo, 2000. "Do Immigrant Inflows Lead to Native Outflows?," NBER Working Papers 7578, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  35. Manacorda, Marco & Manning, Alan & Wadsworth, Jonathan, 2010. "The Impact of Immigration on the Structure of Wages: Theory and Evidence from Britain," CEPR Discussion Papers 7888, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  36. Brindusa Anghel & Antonio Cabrales, 2010. "The Determinants of Success in Primary Education in Spain," Working Papers 2010-20, FEDEA.
  37. Giovanni Peri & Chad Sparber, 2009. "Task Specialization, Immigration, and Wages," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(3), pages 135-69, July.
  38. Christian Dustmann & Tommaso Frattini & Caroline Halls, 2010. "Assessing the Fiscal Costs and Benefits of A8 Migration to the UK," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 31(1), pages 1-41, 03.
  39. Chau, Nancy H, 2001. "Strategic Amnesty and Credible Immigration Reform," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(3), pages 604-34, July.
  40. Tito Boeri & Herbert Brücker, 2005. "Why are Europeans so tough on migrants?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(44), pages 629-703, October.
  41. Giovanni Peri & Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, 2006. "Rethinking the Effects of Immigration on Wages," Working Papers 634, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  42. Gabriel J. Felbermayr & Wido Geis & Wilhelm Kohler, 2008. "Restrictive Immigration Policy in Germany: Pains and Gains Foregone?," CESifo Working Paper Series 2316, CESifo Group Munich.
  43. George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1335-1374.
  44. William W. Olney, 2013. "Immigration And Firm Expansion," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 142-157, 02.
  45. Carrasco, Raquel & Ortega, Ana Carolina & Jimeno, Juan F., 2004. "The effect of immigration on the employment opportunities of native-born workers : some evidence for Spain," UC3M Working papers. Economics we046122, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
  46. Kjetil Storesletten, 2003. "Fiscal Implications of Immigration-A Net Present Value Calculation," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 105(3), pages 487-506, 09.
  47. George J. Borjas & Richard B. Freeman, 1992. "Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number borj92-1, March.
  48. Murat Marina, 2012. "Do Immigrant Students Succeed? Evidence from Italy and France," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 12(3), pages 1-22, September.
  49. Mahmood Arai & Moa Bursell & Lena Nekby, 2011. "The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Priors against Men and Women with Arabic Names," Working Papers CEB 11-027, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  50. Jennifer Hunt, 1992. "The impact of the 1962 repatriates from Algeria on the French labor market," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(3), pages 556-572, April.
  51. Card, David, 2001. "Immigrant Inflows, Native Outflows, and the Local Labor Market Impacts of Higher Immigration," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(1), pages 22-64, January.
  52. Mariya Aleksynska & Yann Algan, 2010. "Economic and Cultural Assimilation and Integration of Immigration in Europe," Working Papers 2010-29, CEPII research center.
  53. Paul Beaudry & Mark Doms & Ethan Lewis, 2010. "Should the Personal Computer Be Considered a Technological Revolution? Evidence from U.S. Metropolitan Areas," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 118(5), pages 988 - 1036.
  54. Bosch, Mariano & Carnero, M. Angeles & Farré, Lídia, 2010. "Information and discrimination in the rental housing market: Evidence from a field experiment," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 11-19, January.
  55. Teresa Casey & Christian Dustmann, 2009. "Immigrants' Identity, Economic Outcomes, and the Transmission of Identity across Generations," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0923, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  56. Trax, Michaela & Brunow, Stephan & Suedekum, Jens, 2015. "Cultural diversity and plant-level productivity," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 85-96.
  57. Gandal, Neil & Hanson, Gordon H. & Slaughter, M.J.Matthew J., 2004. "Technology, trade, and adjustment to immigration in Israel," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 403-428, April.
  58. Pernilla Joona & Nabanita Gupta & Eskil Wadensjö, 2014. "Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden: incidence, wage effects and state dependence," IZA Journal of Migration, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-23, December.
  59. Albert Saiz, 2003. "Room in the Kitchen for the Melting Pot: Immigration and Rental Prices," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(3), pages 502-521, August.
  60. Jahn, Elke & Hirsch, Boris, 2012. "Is there monopsonistic discrimination against immigrants? First evidence from linked employer employee data," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 65417, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  61. Wozniak, Abigail & Murray, Thomas J., 2012. "Timing is everything: Short-run population impacts of immigration in US cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 60-78.
  62. Mariano Bosch & M. Carnero & Lídia Farré, 2015. "Rental housing discrimination and the persistence of ethnic enclaves," SERIEs- Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Spanish Economic Association, vol. 6(2), pages 129-152, June.
  63. Nekby, Lena, 2002. "Employment Convergence of Immigrants and Natives in Sweden," Research Papers in Economics 2002:9, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  64. Mahmood Arai & Peter Skogman Thoursie, 2009. "Renouncing Personal Names: An Empirical Examination of Surname Change and Earnings," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(1), pages 127-147, 01.
  65. Jennifer Hunt, 1992. "The Impact of the 1962 Repatriates from Algeria on the French Labor Market," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(3), pages 556-572, April.
  66. Kaivan Munshi, 2003. "Networks in the Modern Economy: Mexican Migrants in the U. S. Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(2), pages 549-599.
  67. Stefano Staffolani & Enzo Valentini, 2010. "Does Immigration Raise Blue and White Collar Wages of Natives? The Case of Italy," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(3), pages 295-310, 09.
  68. Herbert Brücker & Elke J. Jahn, 2009. "Migration and Wage-Setting: Reassessing the Labor Market Effects of Migration," Kiel Working Papers 1502, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  69. Michael Fertig & Stefanie Schurer, 2007. "Earnings Assimilation of Immigrants in Germany: The Importance of Heterogeneity and Attrition Bias," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 30, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  70. Joan Llull, 2013. "Immigration, Wages, and Education: A Labor Market Equilibrium Structural Model," Working Papers 711, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  71. George J. Borjas & Richard B. Friedman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1997. "How Much Do Immigration and Trade Affect Labor Market Outcomes?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 28(1), pages 1-90.
  72. Christian Dustmann & Ian Preston, 2012. "Comment: Estimating The Effect Of Immigration On Wages," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 216-223, 02.
  73. Patricia Cortes, 2008. "The Effect of Low-Skilled Immigration on U.S. Prices: Evidence from CPI Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(3), pages 381-422, 06.
  74. Thomas Andersen & Carl-Johan Dalgaard, 2011. "Flows of people, flows of ideas, and the inequality of nations," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 1-32, March.
  75. Dustmann, Christian & Glitz, Albrecht & Vogel, Thorsten, 2010. "Employment, wages, and the economic cycle: Differences between immigrants and natives," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 1-17, January.
  76. Simone Bertoli & Jesus Fernandez-Huertas Moraga & Francesc Ortega, 2010. "Crossing the Border: Self-selection, Earnings and Individual Migration Decisions," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1011, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  77. Gil Epstein & Avi Weiss, 2011. "The why, when, and how of immigration amnesties," Journal of Population Economics, European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(1), pages 285-316, January.
  78. Erling Barth & Bernt Bratsberg & Oddbj¯rn Raaum, 2004. "Identifying Earnings Assimilation of Immigrants under Changing Macroeconomic Conditions," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(1), pages 1-22, 03.
  79. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2006. "Evidence of Ethnic Discrimination in the Swedish Labor Market Using Experimental Data," IZA Discussion Papers 2281, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  80. Pernilla Andersson Joona & Lena Nekby, 2012. "Intensive Coaching of New Immigrants: An Evaluation Based on Random Program Assignment," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 114(2), pages 575-600, 06.
  81. Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 1998. "The Age of Mass Migration: Causes and Economic Impact," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195116519, May.
  82. George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 9755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  83. Sanromá, Esteban & Ramos, Raul & Simón, Hipólito, 2009. "Immigrant Wages in the Spanish Labour Market: Does the Origin of Human Capital Matter?," IZA Discussion Papers 4157, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  84. Hipólito Simón & Esteban Sanromá & Raúl Ramos, 2008. "Labour segregation and immigrant and native-born wage distributions in Spain: an analysis using matched employer–employee data," Spanish Economic Review, Spanish Economic Association, vol. 10(2), pages 135-168, June.
  85. Nekby, Lena, 2010. "Same, Same but (Initially) Different? The Social Integration of Natives and Immigrants in Sweden," SULCIS Working Papers 2010:4, Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS.
  86. Ethan Lewis, 2011. "Immigration, Skill Mix, and Capital Skill Complementarity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(2), pages 1029-1069.
  87. Ken Clark & Joanne Lindley, 2009. "Immigrant assimilation pre and post labour market entry: evidence from the UK Labour Force Survey," Journal of Population Economics, European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(1), pages 175-198, January.
  88. Patricia Cortés & José Tessada, 2011. "Low-Skilled Immigration and the Labor Supply of Highly Skilled Women," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 88-123, July.
  89. Sylke Schnepf, 2007. "Immigrants’ educational disadvantage: an examination across ten countries and three surveys," Journal of Population Economics, European Society for Population Economics, vol. 20(3), pages 527-545, July.
  90. Alessandra VENTURINI & Claudia VILLOSIO, 2006. "Labour market effects of immigration into Italy: An empirical analysis," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 145(1-2), pages 91-118, 03.
  91. Nekby, Lena & Rödin, Magnus, 2010. "Acculturation identity and employment among second and middle generation immigrants," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 35-50, February.
  92. Philip Oreopoulos & Alan J. Auerbach, 1999. "Analyzing the Fiscal Impact of U.S. Immigration," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 176-180, May.
  93. Basilio, Leilanie & Bauer, Thomas K., 2010. "Transferability of Human Capital and Immigrant Assimilation – An Analysis for Germany," Ruhr Economic Papers 164, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
  94. Hanson, Gordon H. & Slaughter, Matthew J., 2002. "Labor-market adjustment in open economies: Evidence from US states," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 3-29, June.
  95. Dominique Gross, 2002. "Three million foreigners, three million unemployed? Immigration flows and the labour market in France," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(16), pages 1969-1983.
  96. Jan Ekberg, 1999. "Immigration and the public sector: Income effects for the native population in Sweden," Journal of Population Economics, European Society for Population Economics, vol. 12(3), pages 411-430.
  97. Alessandra Casarico & Giovanni Facchini & Tommaso Frattini, 2012. "What Drives Immigration Amnesties?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3981, CESifo Group Munich.
  98. Andersson Joona, Pernilla & Wadensjö, Eskil, 2009. "Being employed by a co-national: A cul-de-sac or a short cut to the main road of the labour market?," SULCIS Working Papers 2009:11, Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS.
  99. David Card, 2007. "How Immigration Affects U.S. Cities," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0711, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7778. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.