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The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants

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  • Bertocchi, Graziella

    () (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)

  • Strozzi, Chiara

    () (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)

Abstract

We investigate the origin and evolution of the legal institution of citizenship from a political economy perspective. We compile a new data set on citizenship laws across countries of the world which documents how these institutions have evolved in the postwar period. We show that, despite a persistent impact of the original legislation, they have responded endogenously and systematically to a number of economic determinants, such as migration, the size of government, and the demographic structure of the population. Overall, a large stock of migrants decreases the probability of adoption of a mix of jus soli and jus sanguinis provisions, while it pushes jus sanguinis countries toward the adoption of jus soli elements. The welfare burden proves not to be an obstacle for a jus soli legislation, while demographic stagnation encourages the adoption of mixed and jus soli regimes. We also gauge the potential role of legal, political and cultural determinants, and find that a jus sanguinis origin is a factor of resistance to change, that a high degree of democracy promotes the adoption of jus soli elements while the instability of state borders associated with decolonization impedes it, and that cultural factors have no impact.

Suggested Citation

  • Bertocchi, Graziella & Strozzi, Chiara, 2006. "The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants," IZA Discussion Papers 2510, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2510
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    1. Alberto Alesina & Enrico Spolaore, 1997. "On the Number and Size of Nations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(4), pages 1027-1056.
    2. Bertocchi, Graziella, 2011. "The enfranchisement of women and the welfare state," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 535-553, May.
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    25. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. Graziella Bertocchi, 2016. "The legacies of slavery in and out of Africa," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, December.
    2. Graziella Bertocchi & Chiara Strozzi, 2008. "International migration and the role of institutions," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 81-102, October.
    3. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2009. "The Causes and Effects of International Migrations: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980-2005," NBER Working Papers 14833, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Marina Murat & Barbara Pistoresi, 2009. "Migrant Networks: Empirical Implications for the Italian Bilateral Trade," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 371-390.
    5. Calahorrano, Lena & an de Meulen, Philipp, 2011. "Demographics and Factor Flows – A Political Economy Approach," Ruhr Economic Papers 299, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    6. Giuranno, Michele G. & Rongili, Biswas, 2012. "Inter-jurisdictional migration and the size of government," MPRA Paper 42604, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Russo, Giuseppe & Salsano, Francesco, 2012. "Electoral systems and immigration," MPRA Paper 38497, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Ciro Avitabile & Irma Clots-Figueras & Paolo Masella, 2013. "The Effect of Birthright Citizenship on Parental Integration Outcomes," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(3), pages 777-810.
    9. Gordon Hanson, 2010. "The Governance of Migration Policy," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 185-207.
    10. Markus Drometer & Romuald Méango, 2017. "Electoral Cycles, Partisan Effects and U.S. Naturalization Policies," ifo Working Paper Series 239, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    11. Ortega Francesc, 2010. "Immigration, Citizenship, and the Size of Government," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-40, March.
    12. repec:zbw:rwirep:0299 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Bertocchi, Graziella & Strozzi, Chiara, 2006. "The Age of Mass Migration: Economic and Institutional Determinants," IZA Discussion Papers 2499, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Ortega, Francesc & Peri, Giovanni, 2009. "The Causes and Effects of International Labor Mobility: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980-2005," MPRA Paper 19183, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Seema Sangita, 2013. "The Effect of Diasporic Business Networks on International Trade Flows," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 266-280, May.
    16. Chiara Strozzi, 2016. "The changing nature of citizenship legislation," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 322-322, December.
    17. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2016. "The effect of income and immigration policies on international migration," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Economics of International Migration, chapter 11, pages 333-360 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    18. Graziella Bertocchi, 2016. "The Legacies of Slavery in and out of Africa," Department of Economics 0096, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    19. Graziella bertocchi & Chiara Strozzi, 2010. "L'evoluzione delle leggi sulla cittadinanza: una prospettiva globale," Department of Economics 0626, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    20. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "The Role of Income and Immigration Policies in Attracting International Migrants," Working Papers 1214, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    21. Tesfaye A. Gebremedhin & Astghik Mavisakalyan, 2013. "Immigration and Political Instability," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(3), pages 317-341, August.
    22. de la Rica, Sara & Glitz, Albrecht & Ortega, Francesc, 2013. "Immigration in Europe: Trends, Policies and Empirical Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 7778, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    23. Ernest MIGUELEZ, 2014. "Inventor diasporas and the internationalization of technology," Cahiers du GREThA 2014-12, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    24. Lena Calahorrano & Philipp an de Meulen, 2011. "Demographics and Factor Flows – A Political Economy Approach," Ruhr Economic Papers 0299, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    borders; legal origins; international migration; citizenship laws; democracy;

    JEL classification:

    • P16 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Political Economy of Capitalism
    • K40 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - General
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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