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The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants

  • Graziella Bertocchi

    (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, CEPR, CHILD and IZA)

  • Chiara Strozzi

    (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)

We investigate the origin and evolution of the legal institution of citizenship. We compile a new data set on citizenship laws across countries of the world which documents how these institutions have evolved from the legal tradition of common and civil law established in the course of the 19th century. We show that in the postwar period citizenship laws have responded endogenously and systematically to economic and institutional determinants. Original citizenship laws tend to affect the current legislation persistently, with a particularly strong tendency for jus sanguinis to be preserved despite discontinuities in the transplanting process for former colonies. The presence of a large stock of migrants tends to limit the application of jus soli elements, although there is also evidence of a contrasting tendency for those jus sanguinis countries exposed to large immigration. The results hold after controlling for additional factors such as the degree of democracy, border stability, the welfare burden, demographics, and cultural characteristics.

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Paper provided by Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano in its series Development Working Papers with number 211.

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Date of creation: 15 Jun 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:csl:devewp:211
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