IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Individual Determinants of Self-Employment Entry – What Do We Really Know?

  • Simoes, Nadia
  • Moreira, Sandrina B.
  • Crespo, Nuno

The analysis of the decision to enter into self-employment is a hot topic in economic literature. Among the elements that most directly influence this decision, individual factors are central. This study produces a comprehensive survey of the impact of these factors, covering both the theoretical arguments and the main conclusions emerging from the empirical studies. We analyze twelve critical determinant factors of the entry into self-employment grouped into seven categories: (i) basic individual characteristics (gender, age, and marital status and children); (ii) family background (parents and spouse); (iii) personality characteristics (risk attitude and other psychological traits); (iv) human capital (education and experience); (v) health condition; (vi) nationality and ethnicity; and (vii) access to financial resources. While for some of the factors solid conclusions can be found, for others additional research is still needed in order to shed further light on their influence.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/48403/1/MPRA_paper_48403.pdf
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 48403.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 17 Jul 2013
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48403
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany

Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2459
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-992459
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Pernilla Andersson Joona & Eskil Wadensjö, 2013. "The best and the brightest or the least successful? Self-employment entry among male wage-earners in Sweden," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 155-172, January.
  2. Joachim Wagner, 2006. "Are nascent entrepreneurs 'Jacks-of-all-trades'? A test of Lazear's theory of entrepreneurship with German data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(20), pages 2415-2419.
  3. Lei Wang & Leonel Prieto & Kim T. Hinrichs, 2010. "Direct And Indirect Effects Of Individual And Environmental Factors On Motivation For Self-Employment," Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 15(04), pages 481-502.
  4. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Self-employment matching: an analysis of dual-earner couples in Sweden," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(3), pages 2197-2209.
  5. Fairlie, Robert W. & Krashinsky, Harry A., 2006. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship Revisited," IZA Discussion Papers 2201, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Victor R. Fuchs, 1980. "Self-Employment and Labor Force Participation of Older Males (Revised)," NBER Working Papers 0584, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Michael Hout & Harvey Rosen, 2000. "Self-Employment, Family Background, and Race," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 670-692.
  8. Thomas Leoni & Martin Falk, 2010. "Gender and field of study as determinants of self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 167-185, February.
  9. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899604, October.
  10. Wellington, Alison J., 2006. "Self-employment: the new solution for balancing family and career?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 357-386, June.
  11. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment: Evidence from three generations," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 261-276, April.
  12. Betsey Stevenson & Justin Wolfers, 2007. "Marriage and divorce: changes and their driving forces," Working Paper Series 2007-03, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  13. Vincenzo Quadrini, 2000. "Entrepreneurship, Saving and Social Mobility," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 3(1), pages 1-40, January.
  14. Nathalie Colombier & Laurent Denant Boemont & Youenn Loheac & David Masclet, 2008. "Risk aversion: an experiment with self-employed workers and salaried workers," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(10), pages 791-795.
  15. Lofstrom, Magnus & Bates, Timothy, 2007. "African Americans' Pursuit of Self-Employment," IZA Discussion Papers 3156, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  16. Åstebro, Thomas & Chen, Jing, 2014. "The entrepreneurial earnings puzzle: Mismeasurement or real?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 88-105.
  17. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank M. & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2006. "Risk Attitudes of Nascent Entrepreneurs: New Evidence from an Experimentally-Validated Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 2168, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Michael Stuetzer & Martin Obschonka & Eva Schmitt-Rodermund, 2013. "Balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 93-114, June.
  19. Yannis Georgellis & Howard Wall, 2005. "Gender differences in self-employment," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-342.
  20. Michael Fritsch & Alina Sorgner, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Creative Professions: A Micro-Level Analysis," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 538, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  21. Silva, Olmo, 2006. "The Jack-of-All-Trades Entrepreneur: Innate Talent or Acquired Skill?," IZA Discussion Papers 2264, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  22. Anat Barnir & Erin Mclaughlin, 2011. "Parental Self-Employment, Start-Up Activities And Funding: Exploring Intergenerational Effects," Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 16(03), pages 371-392.
  23. Ozkan Eren & Ozan Sula, 2009. "The Effect of Ability on Young Men’s Self-Employment Decision: Evidence from the NELS," Working Papers 0913, University of Nevada, Las Vegas , Department of Economics.
  24. Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2003. "Entrepreneurship, frictions, and wealth," Staff Report 322, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  25. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1996. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains: Evidence from the Swedish Lottery," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1515-26, November.
  26. Martin Falk & Thomas Leoni, 2009. "Characteristics of self-employment among university graduates," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(10), pages 1065-1071.
  27. Andersson, Lina & Hammarstedt, Mats & Hussain, Shakir & Shukur, Ghazi, 2011. "Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A Multilevel Approach," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 261, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  28. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy & Grilo, Isabel & van der Zwan, Peter, 2012. "Explaining preferences and actual involvement in self-employment: Gender and the entrepreneurial personality," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 325-341.
  29. Clark, A.E., 1995. "Job Satisfaction and Gender: Why Are Women so Happy at Work?," DELTA Working Papers 95-10, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  30. Victor R. Fuchs, 1982. "Self-Employment and Labor Force Participation of Older Males," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(3), pages 339-357.
  31. Borjas, George J & Bronars, Stephen G, 1989. "Consumer Discrimination and Self-employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 581-605, June.
  32. Dohmen Thomas & Falk Armin & Huffman David & Sunde Uwe & Schupp Jürgen & Wagner Gert, 2009. "Individual Risk Attitudes: Measurement, Determinants and Behavioral Consequences," ROA Research Memorandum 007, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
  33. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
  34. repec:use:tkiwps:332 is not listed on IDEAS
  35. Carlos Bozzoli & Tilman Brück & Nina Wald, 2010. "Self-Employment and Conflict in Colombia," HiCN Working Papers 82, Households in Conflict Network.
  36. Niels Bosma & Ingrid Verheul & Jolanda Hessels & Mirjam van Praag & Veronique Schutjens, 2011. "Entrepreneurship and Role Models," Scales Research Reports H201017, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  37. Bates, Timothy, 1995. "Self-employment entry across industry groups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 143-156, March.
  38. Bates, Timothy, 1997. "Financing small business creation: The case of Chinese and Korean immigrant entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 109-124, March.
  39. Friedberg, Rachel M, 2000. "You Can't Take It with You? Immigrant Assimilation and the Portability of Human Capital," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 221-51, April.
  40. Kameliia Petrova, 2012. "Part-time entrepreneurship and financial constraints: evidence from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 473-493, September.
  41. Parker, Simon C., 2008. "Entrepreneurship among married couples in the United States: A simultaneous probit approach," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 459-481, June.
  42. Michael D. Giandrea & Kevin E. Cahill & Joseph F. Quinn, 2008. "Self-Employment Transitions among Older American Workers with Career Jobs," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 684, Boston College Department of Economics.
  43. von Greiff, Jenny, 2009. "Displacement and self-employment entry," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 556-565, October.
  44. William R. Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2009. "Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship," Harvard Business School Working Papers 10-013, Harvard Business School.
  45. Ekelund, Jesper & Johansson, Edvard & Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta & Lichtermann, Dirk, 2005. "Self-employment and risk aversion--evidence from psychological test data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 649-659, October.
  46. Julie Zissimopoulos & Lynn A. Karoly & Qian Gu, 2009. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Self-Employment: The Case of Older Workers," Working Papers 725, RAND Corporation.
  47. Cramer, J. S. & Hartog, J. & Jonker, N. & Van Praag, C. M., 2002. "Low risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 29-36, May.
  48. A.T. Le, 1998. "Empirical Studies of Self employment," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 98-11, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
  49. Kent Eliasson & Hans Westlund, 2013. "Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(2), pages 479-514, April.
  50. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
  51. Niels Bosma & Mirjam van Praag & Roy Thurik & Gerrit de Wit, 2002. "The Value of Human and Social Capital Investments for the Business Performance of Start-ups," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-027/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  52. Marco Caliendo & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2008. "Is Entrepreneurial Success Predictable? An Ex-Ante Analysis of the Character-Based Approach," Working Papers 001, Hanseatic University, Germany, Department of Economics.
  53. David Masclet & Nathalie Colombier, 2008. "Intergenerational correlation in self employment : some further evidence from French ECHP data," Post-Print halshs-00144842, HAL.
  54. Altin Vejsiu, 2011. "Incentives to self-employment decision in Sweden," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(4), pages 379-403.
  55. Bengtsson, Claes & Persson, Mats & Willenhag, Peter, 2005. "Gender and overconfidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 199-203, February.
  56. Esteban Lafuente & Yancy Vaillant & Josep Rialp, 2007. "Regional Differences in the Influence of Role Models: Comparing the Entrepreneurial Process of Rural Catalonia," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(6), pages 779-796.
  57. Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2004. "The Making of Entrepreneurs in Germany: Are Native Men and Immigrants Alike?," IZA Discussion Papers 1440, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  58. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-748, August.
  59. Lechmann, Daniel S. J. & Schnabel, Claus, 2011. "Are the self-employed really jacks-of-all-trades? Testing the assumptions and implications of Lazear's theory of entrepreneurship with German data," FAU Discussion Papers in Economics 11/2011, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Economics.
  60. Dunn, Thomas & Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, 2000. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment: Evidence from Intergenerational Links," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 282-305, April.
  61. George J. Borjas, 1986. "The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 1942, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  62. Burke, Andrew E & FitzRoy, Felix R & Nolan, Michael A, 2002. "Self-Employment Wealth and Job Creation: The Roles of Gender, Non-pecuniary Motivation and Entrepreneurial Ability," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 255-270, November.
  63. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
  64. Williams, Donald R., 2012. "Gender discrimination and self-employment dynamics in Europe," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 153-158.
  65. Phillip Kim & Howard Aldrich & Lisa Keister, 2006. "Access (Not) Denied: The Impact of Financial, Human, and Cultural Capital on Entrepreneurial Entryin the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 5-22, August.
  66. Kidd, Michael P, 1993. "Immigrant Wage Differentials and the Role of Self-Employment in Australia," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(60), pages 92-115, June.
  67. Gindling, T. H. & Newhouse, David, 2012. "Self-employment in the developing world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6201, The World Bank.
  68. Marc Cowling, 2000. "Are entrepreneurs different across countries?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(12), pages 785-789.
  69. Michael J. Pisani & José A. Pagán, 2004. "Self-employment in the era of the new economic model in Latin America: a case study from Nicaragua," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 335-350, July.
  70. Hintermaier, Thomas & Steinberger, Thomas, 2002. "Occupational Choice and the Private Equity Premium Puzzle," Economics Series 122, Institute for Advanced Studies.
  71. Berkay Özcan, 2011. "Only the lonely? The influence of the spouse on the transition to self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 465-492, November.
  72. Co, Catherine Y. & Gang, Ira N. & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2002. "Self-Employment and Wage Earning: Hungary During Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 572, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  73. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 1996. "Ethnic and Racial Self-Employment Differences and Possible Explanations," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(4), pages 757-793.
  74. Michael Fritsch & Alexander Kritikos & Alina Rusakova, 2012. "Who Starts a Business and who is Self-Employed in Germany," Jena Economic Research Papers 2012-001, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
  75. Zissimopoulos, Julie M. & Karoly, Lynn A., 2007. "Transitions to self-employment at older ages: The role of wealth, health, health insurance and other factors," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 269-295, April.
  76. David G. Blanchflower, 2004. "Self-Employment: More may not be better," NBER Working Papers 10286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  77. Van Praag, C Mirjam & Van Ophem, Hans, 1995. "Determinants of Willingness and Opportunity to Start as an Entrepreneur," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(4), pages 513-40.
  78. Devine, Theresa J, 1994. "Changes in Wage-and-Salary Returns to Skill and the Recent Rise in Female Self-Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 108-13, May.
  79. Simone Chlosta & Holger Patzelt & Sabine Klein & Christian Dormann, 2012. "Parental role models and the decision to become self-employed: The moderating effect of personality," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 121-138, January.
  80. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Transmission of self-employment across immigrant generations: the importance of ethnic background and gender," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 555-577, December.
  81. Julie Elston & David Audretsch, 2011. "Financing the entrepreneurial decision: an empirical approach using experimental data on risk attitudes," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 209-222, February.
  82. Tami Gurley-Calvez & Amelia Biehl & Katherine Harper, 2009. "Time-Use Patterns and Women Entrepreneurs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 139-44, May.
  83. Amelia Biehl & Tami Gurley-Calvez & Brian Hill, 2014. "Self-employment of older Americans: do recessions matter?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 297-309, February.
  84. Blanchflower, D.G. & Oswald, A., 1991. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Economics Series Working Papers 99125, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  85. Philipp Koellinger & Maria Minniti & Christian Schade, 2013. "Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Propensity," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 75(2), pages 213-234, 04.
  86. Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence from Panel Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 539-65, November.
  87. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2008. "Education And Entrepreneurship Selection And Performance: A Review Of The Empirical Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 795-841, December.
  88. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
  89. Ken Clark & Stephen Drinkwater, 2010. "Patterns of ethnic self-employment in time and space: evidence from British Census microdata," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 323-338, April.
  90. Brown, Sarah & Dietrich, Michael & Ortiz-Nuñez, Aurora & Taylor, Karl, 2011. "Self-employment and attitudes towards risk: Timing and unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 425-433, June.
  91. Nuno Crespo & Nádia Simões & José Castro Pinto, 2013. "Determinant factors of job quality in Europe," Working Papers Series 2 13-01, ISCTE-IUL, Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL).
  92. Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-66, May.
  93. Mohapatra, Sandeep & Rozelle, Scott & Goodhue, Rachael, 2007. "The Rise of Self-Employment in Rural China: Development or Distress?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 163-181, January.
  94. Blanchard, Lloyd & Zhao, Bo & Yinger, John, 2008. "Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 467-497, March.
  95. Thomas Dunn & Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 1996. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment:Evidence from Intergenerational Links," NBER Working Papers 5622, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  96. Guillermo A. Calvo & Stanislaw Wellisz, 1980. "Technology, Entrepreneurs, and Firm Size," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 95(4), pages 663-677.
  97. Yannis Georgellis & John Sessions & Nikolaos Tsitsianis, 2005. "Windfalls, Wealth, and the Transition to Self-Employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 407-428, December.
  98. Block, Joern & Wagner, Marcus, 2006. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earnings Differentials," MPRA Paper 610, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  99. Rees, Hedley & Shah, Anup, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of Self-employment in the U.K," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, January.
  100. Holtz-Eakin, D. & Joulfaian, D. & Rosen, H.S., 1992. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," Papers 129, Princeton, Department of Economics - Financial Research Center.
  101. Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere & Willie Belton, 2012. "Coming to America: Does Having a Developed Home Country Matter for Self-Employment in the United States?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 538-42, May.
  102. Thomas B. Astebro & Jing Chen, 2014. "The entrepreneurial earnings puzzle: Mismeasurement or real?," Post-Print hal-00829057, HAL.
  103. Luisa Rosti & Francesco Chelli, 2005. "Gender Discrimination, Entrepreneurial Talent and Self-Employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 131-142, 03.
  104. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank M. & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2011. "Personality Characteristics and the Decision to Become and Stay Self-Employed," IZA Discussion Papers 5566, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  105. Erik Hurst & Annamaria Lusardi, 2004. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 319-347, April.
  106. Koellinger, Philipp & Minniti, Maria & Schade, Christian, 2007. ""I think I can, I think I can": Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 502-527, August.
  107. Robert Blackburn & Monder Ram, 2006. "Fix or fixation? The contributions and limitations of entrepreneurship and small firms to combating social exclusion," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 73-89, January.
  108. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  109. Han, Linghui & Hare, Denise, 2013. "The link between credit markets and self-employment choice among households in rural China," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 52-64.
  110. Lu, Jiangyong & Tao, Zhigang, 2007. "Determinants of Entrepreneurial Activities in China," MPRA Paper 5675, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  111. Chen, Chao C. & Greene, Patricia Gene & Crick, Ann, 1998. "Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 295-316, July.
  112. Linda N. Edwards & Elizabeth Field-Hendrey, 2002. "Home-Based Work and Women's Labor Force Decisions," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 170-200, January.
  113. Y Georgellis & J G Sessions & N Tsitsianis, 2005. "Self-Employment Longitudinal Dynamics: A Review of the Literature," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 10(2), pages 51-84, September.
  114. Moore, Robert L, 1983. "Employer Discrimination: Evidence from Self-Employed Workers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 496-501, August.
  115. Simon Parker & Jonathan Rougier, 2007. "The retirement behaviour of the self-employed in Britain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(6), pages 697-713.
  116. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
  117. Jenny Nykvist, 2008. "Entrepreneurship and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Sweden," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 110(1), pages 23-43, 03.
  118. Ken S. Cavalluzzo, 2002. "Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 641-680, October.
  119. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
  120. Thomas Astebro & Jing Chen & Peter Thompson, 2010. "Stars and Misfits: Self-Employment and Labor Market Frictions," Working Papers 1003, Florida International University, Department of Economics.
  121. Thomas Astebro & Peter Thompson, 2011. "Entrepreneurs, Jacks of all trades or Hobos?," Post-Print hal-00596877, HAL.
  122. Ahn, Taehyun, 2010. "Attitudes toward risk and self-employment of young workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 434-442, April.
  123. Michael Fritsch & Alina Rusakova, 2010. "Personality Traits, Self-Employment, and Professions," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 343, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  124. Evgueni Vinogradov & Lars Kolvereid, 2007. "Cultural background, human capital and self-employment rates among immigrants in Norway," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 359-376, July.
  125. Fairlie, Robert W, 1999. "The Absence of the African-American Owned Business: An Analysis of the Dynamics of Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(1), pages 80-108, January.
  126. Fairlie, Robert, 2014. "Recent Trends in Ethnic and Racial Business Ownership," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1b44c0mk, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  127. Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrell & Mark N Harris, 2008. "Modelling the Incidence of Self-Employment: Individual and Employment Type Heterogeneity," Working Papers 2008010, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Sep 2008.
  128. Alina Sorgner & Michael Fritsch, 2013. "Occupational Choice and Self-Employment: Are They Related?," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 533, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  129. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1995. "Testing Hypotheses of Immigrant Self-Employment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(1), pages 194-204.
  130. Croson, David C. & Minniti, Maria, 2012. "Slipping the surly bonds: The value of autonomy in self-employment," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 355-365.
  131. Poschke, Markus, 2013. "Who becomes an entrepreneur? Labor market prospects and occupational choice," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 693-710.
  132. Chris Dawson & Andrew Henley & Paul Latreille, 2014. "Individual Motives for Choosing Self-employment in the UK: Does Region Matter?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(5), pages 804-822, May.
  133. Disney, Richard & Gathergood, John, 2009. "Housing wealth, liquidity constraints and self-employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 79-88, January.
  134. Levesque, Moren & Minniti, Maria, 2006. "The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 177-194, March.
  135. Sexton, Donald L. & Bowman-Upton, Nancy, 1990. "Female and male entrepreneurs: Psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 29-36, January.
  136. Carr, Jon C. & Sequeira, Jennifer M., 2007. "Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A Theory of Planned Behavior approach," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(10), pages 1090-1098, October.
  137. Simon C. Parker & Martin T. Robson, 2004. "Explaining International Variations in Self-Employment: Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 287-301, October.
  138. Jonathan Levie, 2007. "Immigration, In-Migration, Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 143-169, March.
  139. Johansson, Edvard, 2000. " Self-Employment and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Finland," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 102(1), pages 123-34, March.
  140. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
  141. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan Jr., 2002. "The Impact of Host-Country Schooling on Earnings: A Study of Male Immigrants in the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 37(1), pages 63-105.
  142. Vania Sena & Jonathan Scott & Stephen Roper, 2012. "Gender, borrowing patterns and self-employment: some evidence for England," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 467-480, May.
  143. Dohmen, Thomas & Falk, Armin & Huffman, David B. & Sunde, Uwe, 2006. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Risk and Trust Attitudes," IZA Discussion Papers 2380, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  144. Fairchild, Gregory B., 2010. "Intergenerational ethnic enclave influences on the likelihood of being self-employed," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 290-304, May.
  145. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 2000. "Trends in Self-Employment among White and Black Men during the Twentieth Century," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 643-669.
  146. Burke, Andrew E & FitzRoy, Felix R & Nolan, Michael A, 2000. " When Less Is More: Distinguishing between Entrepreneurial Choice and Performance," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(5), pages 565-87, December.
  147. Dan Lovallo & Colin Camerer, 1999. "Overconfidence and Excess Entry: An Experimental Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 306-318, March.
  148. Melanie Jones & Paul Latreille, 2011. "Disability and self-employment: evidence for the UK," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(27), pages 4161-4178.
  149. Kræn Blume & Mette Ejrnæs & Helena Nielsen & Allan Würtz, 2009. "Labor market transitions of immigrants with emphasis on marginalization and self-employment," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(4), pages 881-908, October.
  150. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Klapper, Leora F. & Panos, Georgios A., 2009. "Entrepreneurship in post-conflict transition : the role of informality and access to finance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4935, The World Bank.
  151. Greg Hundley, 2001. "Why Women Earn Less Than Men in Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 22(4), pages 817-829, October.
  152. Mats Hammarstedt & Ghazi Shukur, 2009. "Testing the home-country self-employment hypothesis on immigrants in Sweden," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(7), pages 745-748.
  153. Gill, Andrew M, 1988. "Choice of Employment Status and the Wages of Employees and the Self-employed: Some Further Evidence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(3), pages 229-234, July-Sept.
  154. Robert E. Lucas Jr., 1978. "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 508-523, Autumn.
  155. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Yang, Elena Ai-Yuan & Tsai, William, 1992. "Does culture endure, or is it malleable? Issues for entrepreneurial economic development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(6), pages 441-458, November.
  156. Andrew Henley, 2005. "Job Creation by the Self-employed: The Roles of Entrepreneurial and Financial Capital," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 175-196, 09.
  157. Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
  158. Bruce D. Meyer, 1990. "Why Are There So Few Black Entrepreneurs?," NBER Working Papers 3537, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  159. Lin, Zhengxi & Picot, Garnett & Compton, Janice, 2000. "The Entry and Exit Dynamics of Self-Employment in Canada," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 105-125, September.
  160. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521728355, October.
  161. Kevin E. Cahill & Michael D. Giandrea & Joseph F. Quinn, 2013. "New Evidence on Self-Employment Transitions Among Older Americans with Career Jobs," Working Papers 463, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  162. Mandelman, Federico S. & Montes-Rojas, Gabriel V., 2009. "Is Self-employment and Micro-entrepreneurship a Desired Outcome?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1914-1925, December.
  163. Baumann, Florian & Brändle, Tobias, 2012. "Self-employment, educational attainment and employment protection legislation," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 846-859.
  164. Michael Stuetzer & Martin Obschonka & Per Davidsson & Eva Schmitt-Rodermund, 2013. "Where do entrepreneurial skills come from?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(12), pages 1183-1186, August.
  165. Bhagwati, Jagdish & Hanson, Gordon H (ed.), 2009. "Skilled Immigration Today: Prospects, Problems, and Policies," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195382433, December.
  166. Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrel & John Sessions, 2006. "Self-Employment Matching: An Analysis of Dual Earner Couples and Working Households," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 155-172, 03.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48403. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.