Consumer Discrimination and Self-employment
Self-employment rates and incomes differ significantly by race. The authors show that these differentials arise in markets with consumer discrimination and incomplete information about the price of the good and the race of the seller. Equilibrium income distributions have two properties: mean black incomes are lower than mean white incomes, and the returns to ability are lower for black than for white sellers. Able blacks, therefore, are less likely to self-select into the self-employment sector than able whites. Using the 1980 census data, the authors find that observed racial differences in the self-employment income distributions are consistent with the theoretical predictions. Copyright 1989 by University of Chicago Press.
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References listed on IDEAS
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- George J. Borjas, 1986.
"The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(4), pages 485-506.
- Leonard, Jonathan S, 1984.
"Employment and Occupational Advance under Affirmative Action,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 66(3), pages 377-85, August.
- Jonathan S. Leonard, 1984. "Employment and Occupational Advance Under Affirmative Action," NBER Working Papers 1270, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heckman, James J, 1979.
"Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
- Moore, Robert L, 1983. "Employer Discrimination: Evidence from Self-Employed Workers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 496-501, August.
- Goldberg, Matthew S, 1982. "Discrimination, Nepotism, and Long-Run Wage Differentials," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(2), pages 307-19, May.
- Carlson, John A & McAfee, R Preston, 1983. "Discrete Equilibrium Price Dispersion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 480-93, June.
- Blau, David M, 1987. "A Time-Series Analysis of Self-employment in the United State," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 445-67, June.
- Lazear, Edward P & Moore, Robert L, 1984. "Incentives, Productivity, and Labor Contracts," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 99(2), pages 275-96, May.
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