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Language Skills and Homophilous Hiring Discrimination: Evidence from Gender-and Racially-Differentiated Applications

  • Anthony Edo

    ()

    (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)

  • Nicolas Jacquemet

    ()

    (EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, BETA - Bureau d'économie théorique et appliquée - CNRS : UMR7522 - Université de Strasbourg - Université Nancy II)

  • Constantine Yannelis

    ()

    (Stanford University - Department of Economics - Department of Economics)

This paper investigates the importance of ethnic homophily in the hiring discrimination process, and provides a novel test for statistical discrimination. Our evidence comes from a correspondence test performed in France, in which we use three different kinds of ethnic identification: French sounding names, North African sounding names, and "foreign" sounding names with no clear ethnic association. Within both male and female groups, we show that all non-French applicants are equally discriminated against when compared to French applicants. This indicates that racial discrimination in employment is directed against members of non-majority ethnic groups, and highlights the importance of favoritism for in-group members. Moreover we find direct evidence of homophily: recruiters with European names are more likely to call back French named applicants and female recruiters are more likely to call back women. The paper also directly tests for statistical discrimination by adding a signal related to language skill ability in all resumes sent to half the job offers. Although the signal inclusion significantly impacts the discrimination experienced by non-French females, it is much weaker for male minorities.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) with number halshs-00877458.

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Date of creation: Oct 2013
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Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-00877458
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  1. David Neumark, 2012. "Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(4), pages 1128-1157.
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  5. Emmanuel Duguet & Loïc Du Parquet & Yannick L'Horty & Pascale Petit, 2012. "First Order Stochastic Dominance and the Measurement of Hiring Discrimination: A ranking extension of correspondence testings with an application to gender and origin," Working Papers halshs-00731005, HAL.
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  12. Emmanuel Duguet & Noam Leandri & Yannick L’Horty & Pascale Petit, 2008. "Are young French jobseekers of ethnic immigrant origin discriminated against? A controlled experiment in the Paris area," Documents de recherche 08-06, Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne.
  13. Mahmood Arai & Moa Bursell & Lena Nekby, 2011. "The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Priors against Men and Women with Arabic Names," DULBEA Working Papers 11-09, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
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  16. Yannis M. Ioannides & Linda Datcher Loury, 2004. "Job Information Networks, Neighborhood Effects, and Inequality," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1056-1093, December.
  17. Michael A. Stoll & Steven Raphael & Harry J. Holzer, 2004. "Black job applicants and the hiring officer's race," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 57(2), pages 267-287, January.
  18. Habyarimana, James P. & Humphreys, Macartan & Posner, Daniel N. & Weinstein, Jeremy, 2006. "Why Does Ethnic Diversity Undermine Public Goods Provision? An Experimental Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 2272, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  19. Dechief, Diane & Oreopoulos, Philip, 2012. "Why do some employers prefer to interview Matthew but not Samir? New evidence from Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2012-8, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 19 Feb 2012.
  20. Nicolas Jacquemet & Constantine Yannelis, 2011. "Indiscriminate Discrimination: A Correspondence Test for Ethnic Homophily in the Chicago Labor Market," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 11013, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  21. Booth, Alison L. & Leigh, Andrew & Varganova, Elena, 2010. "Does Racial and Ethnic Discrimination Vary Across Minority Groups? Evidence from a Field Experiment," IZA Discussion Papers 4947, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  23. Holzer, Harry J & Raphael, Steven & Stoll, Michael A, 2006. "Perceived Criminality, Criminal Background Checks, and the Racial Hiring Practices of Employers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(2), pages 451-80, October.
  24. Pager, Devah & Western, Bruce & Bonikowski, Bart, 2009. "Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment," IZA Discussion Papers 4469, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  25. Giuliano, Laura & Levine, David I. & Leonard, Jonathan, 2009. "Racial Bias in the Manager-Employee Relationship: An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt8pm012h0, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  26. Charles F. Westoff & Tomas Frejka, 2007. "Religiousness and Fertility among European Muslims," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 33(4), pages 785-809.
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