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Discrimination à l'embauche selon l'origine et le genre : défiance indifférenciée ou ciblée sur certains groupes ?

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  • Anthony Edo

    (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Nicolas Jacquemet

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg)

Abstract

L'existence d'une discrimination raciale à l'embauche sur le marché du travail est désormais largement documentée dans la plupart des économies occidentales. Si ce phénomène est confirmé par différentes études pour le marché du travail français, les causes et les sources de cette discrimination restent quant à elles largement inconnues. Cet article présente les résultats d'une étude destinée à évaluer empiriquement les principales sources de discrimination à l'embauche en Île-de-France, en s'inspirant des développements récents de la littérature. Cette évaluation repose sur un envoi contrôlé de candidatures en réponse à des offres d'emploi postées sur des sites publics d'information. L'étude montre que la discrimination à l'embauche à l'encontre des candidats issus de l'immigration est de l'ordre de 40% en moyenne. Cette inégalité de traitement entre candidats affecte toutes les candidatures d'origine étrangère, indépendamment de l'origine du candidat, ce qui va à l'encontre de l'hypothèse d'une défiance ciblée à l'encontre de vagues particulières d'immigration. Sur la base de ces résultats, il semble donc que la question de la discrimination se pose bien plus en termes d'opposition entre le groupe majoritaire, "autochtone", et l'ensemble des individus issus de l'immigration, qu'en termes de difficultés spécifiques propres à certains groupes. En ce sens, les résultats confirment l'existence d'une "homéophilie" ethnique sous-jacente à la discrimination - c'est-à-dire d'une défiance indifférenciée de la part des employeurs à l'égard de tout candidat n'appartenant pas au groupe ethnique majoritaire. Ensuite, nos résultats indiquent que les candidatures féminines sont favorisées par rapport à leurs équivalents masculins et relativement moins affectées par la discrimination d'origine. Enfin, l'inclusion d'un signal explicite d'aisance linguistique sur la moitié des envois élimine toute discrimination liée à l'origine pour les candidatures féminines. L'effet d'un tel signal est en revanche plus faible sur la discrimination opérant entre candidatures masculines.

Suggested Citation

  • Anthony Edo & Nicolas Jacquemet, 2014. "Discrimination à l'embauche selon l'origine et le genre : défiance indifférenciée ou ciblée sur certains groupes ?," Post-Print halshs-00935241, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00935241
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00935241
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    1. Berson, Clémence & Laouénan, Morgane & Valat, Emmanuel, 2020. "Outsourcing recruitment as a solution to prevent discrimination: A correspondence study," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    2. Matthieu Manant & Serge Pajak & Nicolas Soulié, 2019. "Can social media lead to labor market discrimination? Evidence from a field experiment," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(2), pages 225-246, April.
    3. Laetitia Challe & Yannick l'Horty & Pascale Petit & François-Charles Wolff, 2018. "Les discriminations dans l'accès à l'emploi privé et public : les effets de l'origine, de l'adresse, du sexe et de l'orientation sexuelle," Working Papers halshs-01878469, HAL.
    4. Louise Philomene Mbaye, 2018. "Handicap et discriminations dans l'accès à l'emploi : un testing dans les établissements culturels," Working Papers halshs-01878461, HAL.
    5. Nicolas Jacquemet, 2013. "2. Discriminations à l'embauche : quelle ampleur, quelles solutions ?," Regards croisés sur l'économie, La Découverte, vol. 0(1), pages 49-63.
    6. Louise Philomène Mbaye, 2018. "Handicap et discriminations dans l’accès à l’emploi : un testing dans les établissements culturels," TEPP Research Report 2018-04, TEPP.
    7. Loïc du Parquet & Pascale Petit, 2019. "Discrimination à l’embauche : Ce que nous apprennent deux décennies de testings en France," TEPP Research Report 2019-01, TEPP.

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