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Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France


  • Claire L. Adida

    () (Department of Political Science, University of California San Diego - University of San Diego)

  • David D. Laitin

    () (Department of Political Science, Stanford University - Stanford University [Stanford])

  • Marie-Anne Valfort

    () (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)


Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for secondgeneration immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, antiMuslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences' 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin.

Suggested Citation

  • Claire L. Adida & David D. Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2010. "Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00618060, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-00618060
    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1015550107
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pierre Barthelemy, Jean & Monjardet, Bernard, 1981. "The median procedure in cluster analysis and social choice theory," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 235-267, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Facchini, Giovanni & Margalit, Yotam & Nakata, Hiroyuki, 2016. "Countering Public Opposition to Immigration: The Impact of Information Campaigns," IZA Discussion Papers 10420, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Hedegaard, Morten & Tyran, Jean-Robert, 2014. "The Price of Prejudice," CEPR Discussion Papers 9953, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Anthony Edo & Nicolas Jacquemet & Constantine Yannelis, 2013. "Language Skills and Homophilous Hiring Discrimination: Evidence from Gender- and Racially-Differentiated Applications," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 13058, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    4. Fischer, Justina A.V. & Pastore, Francesco, 2015. "Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis: Religion and Female Employment over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 9244, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Dorian Jullien & Judith Favereau & Cléo Chassonnery-Zaigouche, 2013. "Rationality and Efficiency: From Experimentation in (recent) Applied Microeconomics to Conceptual Issues," GREDEG Working Papers 2013-21, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
    6. Guillaume Pierné, 2013. "Hiring discrimination based on national origin and religious closeness: results from a field experiment in the Paris area," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-15, December.
    7. Nicolas Jacquemet, 2013. "Discriminations à l'embauche : quelle ampleur, quelles solutions ?," Post-Print hal-00876436, HAL.
    8. Claire Adida & David Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2014. "Muslims in France: identifying a discriminatory equilibrium," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(4), pages 1039-1086, October.
    9. Anthony Edo & Nicolas Jacquemet, 2013. "Discrimination à l'embauche selon l'origine et le genre : défiance indifférenciée ou ciblée sur certains groupes ?," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 464(1), pages 155-172.
    10. Adida, Claire L. & Laitin, David D. & Valfort, Marie-Anne, 2012. "Gender, Economic Development and Islam: A Perspective from France," IZA Discussion Papers 6421, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Julie Le Gallo & Yannick L'Horty & Loïc du Parquet & Pascale Petit, 2017. "Les discriminations dans l’accès au logement en France : Un testing de couverture nationale," TEPP Research Report 2017-11, TEPP.
    12. Panu Poutvaara & Max Steinhardt, 2015. "Bitterness in Life and Attitudes Towards Immigration," CESifo Working Paper Series 5611, CESifo Group Munich.
    13. Mathieu Bunel & Yannick L'Horty & Loïc du Parquet & Pascale Petit, 2017. "Les discriminations dans l’accès au logement à Paris : Une expérience contrôlée," TEPP Research Report 2017-01, TEPP.
    14. Zschirnt, Eva & Ruedin, Didier, 2016. "Ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions: A meta-analysis of correspondence tests 1990–2015," EconStor Preprints 142176, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
    15. Yann Algan & Thierry Mayer & Mathias Thoenig, 2013. "The Economic Incentives of Cultural Transmission: Spatial Evidence from Naming Patterns across France," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/bakbbitll86, Sciences Po.
    16. Laetitia Challe & Florent Fremigacci & François Langot & Yannick L'Horty & Loïc Du Parquet & Pascale Petit, 2015. "Access To Employment With Age And Gender: Results Of A Controlled Experiment," Working Papers hal-01292137, HAL.
    17. Stöhr, Tobias & Wichardt, Philipp C., 2016. "Openness to Concerns of Host Country Population Improves Attitudes Towards Immigrants," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145574, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    18. repec:eee:wdevel:v:96:y:2017:i:c:p:520-528 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Claire L. Adida & David D. Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2015. "Religious Homophily In A Secular Country: Evidence From A Voting Game In France," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 53(2), pages 1187-1206, April.
    20. Weichselbaumer, Doris, 2016. "Discrimination against Female Migrants Wearing Headscarves," IZA Discussion Papers 10217, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    21. Claire L. Adida & David D. Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2016. "?One Muslim is Enough!? Evidence from a Field Experiment in France," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 121-122, pages 121-160.
    22. Yann Algan & Thierry Mayer & Mathias Thoenig, 2013. "The Economic Incentives of Cultural Transmission: Spatial : Spatial Evidence from Naming Patterns across France," Working Papers 2013-25, CEPII research center.
    23. Stöhr, Tobias & Wichardt, Philipp C., 2016. "Conflicting identities: Cosmopolitan or anxious? Appreciating concerns of host country population improves attitudes towards immigrants," Kiel Working Papers 2045, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    24. Baert, Stijn, 2017. "Hiring Discrimination: An Overview of (Almost) All Correspondence Experiments Since 2005," IZA Discussion Papers 10738, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    25. Mathieu Bunel & Samuel Gorohouna & Yannick L'Horty & Pascale Petit & Catherine Ris, 2016. "Discriminations Ethniques Dans L’Acces Au Logement: Une Experimentation En Nouvelle-Caledonie," Working Papers halshs-01374442, HAL.

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    Muslim immigrants; Integration; France;


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