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Access To Employment With Age And Gender: Results Of A Controlled Experiment

Listed author(s):
  • Laetitia Challe

    (TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Florent Fremigacci

    (EconomiX - UPOND - Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • François Langot

    ()

    (GAINS - Groupe d'Analyse des Itinéraires et des Niveaux Salariaux - UM - Université du Maine)

  • Yannick L'Horty

    ()

    (TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Loïc Du Parquet

    (GAINS - Groupe d'Analyse des Itinéraires et des Niveaux Salariaux - UM - Université du Maine)

  • Pascale Petit

    (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)

Several concurrent hypotheses have been proposed in order to take into account the persistence of under-employment of persons aged over 50, in France. In this paper, we are interested in the labour demand. We construct and implement an experimental protocol allowing testing four hypotheses currently discussed: the unobservable distance from retirement by the recruiter; the supposed depreciation of skills in a context with repeated technological shocks; the supposed inability of professional retraining, eventually differentiated by gender; a taste discrimination against older workers, as the result of social norms. To test each of these hypotheses, we have conducted four separate campaigns of testing for evaluating them. Between mid-January and mid-August 2015, we have sent, 6 361 applications allocated on seven occupations and twenty-eight profiles. The research investigates a statistical processing of results of these testings. Our results indicate which must necessarily combine several hypotheses to take into account the under-employment of seniors, in France: the difficulties of professional retraining following a shock in the employment career; the social norms inducing a negative representation of the older workers through the employers. Seniors are both victims of the depreciation of the human capital and age discriminations in access to employment, which will especially penalise men in their professional retraining. The classical explanation by the distance from retirement is the only one which isn’t statistical validated.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number hal-01292137.

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Date of creation: Nov 2015
Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-01292137
Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01292137
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References listed on IDEAS
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  1. Mortensen, Dale & Pissarides, Christopher, 2011. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 1, pages 1-19.
  2. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00618060 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. P. A. Riach & J. Rich, 2002. "Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(483), pages 480-518, November.
  4. Claire L. Adida & David D. Laitin & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2010. "Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00618060, HAL.
  5. Langot, François & Moreno-Galbis, Eva, 2013. "Does the growth process discriminate against older workers?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 286-306.
  6. Hellerstein, Judith K & Neumark, David & Troske, Kenneth R, 1999. "Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(3), pages 409-446, July.
  7. James J. Heckman, 1998. "Detecting Discrimination," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 101-116, Spring.
  8. Jean-Olivier Hairault & Francois Langot & Thepthida Sopraseuth, 2010. "Distance to Retirement and Older Workers' Employment: The Case for Delaying the Retirement Age," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 8(5), pages 1034-1076, 09.
  9. David Neumark & Ian Burn & Patrick Button, 2015. "Is It Harder for Older Workers to Find Jobs? New and Improved Evidence from a Field Experiment," NBER Working Papers 21669, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Phelps, Edmund S, 1972. "The Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 659-661, September.
  11. Pierre Cahuc, 2005. "Le difficile retour en emploi des seniors," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 20(1), pages 3-56.
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