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Comment évaluer la discrimination à l'embauche ?

  • Pascale Petit

[fre] Une étude d'audit par couples est une expérience contrôlée sur le marché du travail. Elle rend compte d'un accès à l'emploi différencié des différents groupes démographiques composant la population active. Des couples de candidats présentant des caractéristiques productives similaires postulent aux mêmes emplois vacants. Seule leur appartenance respective à l'un des groupes démographiques les distingue. Le but de l'étude est d'examiner si l'un des groupes est plus fréquemment recruté. Cette méthodologie présente deux intérêts majeurs : elle met en évidence des inégalités dès l'embauche, donc en amont des discriminations salariales, jusque-là privilégiées dans les travaux économétriques. En outre, la procédure de collecte des données permet de contrôler les caractéristiques productives des candidats et la fréquence selon laquelle ils postulent aux mêmes emplois. Sa mise en œuvre doit toutefois suivre plusieurs principes, sous peine de fournir des résultats biaises. Alors que les études économétriques standard concluent à l'absence de discrimination salariale significative à l'encontre des groupes démographiques minoritaires, les études d'audit par couples mettent en avant une discriminationà l'embauche. [eng] Any pair audit study is a controled experience on labor market. The aim of those studies is to underline the difference in job-access among different demographic groups within the working population. The methodology is as follows : pairs of candidates apply for the very same vacant jobs. Their productive abilities are all alike but they belong to distinctive demographic groups. The results show whether one group has an easier access to employement. The methodology applied here has two main advantages. First, it enables to highlight job inequalities as of hiring. We thus concentrate on a kind of inequality taking place before the wage ones, which are usually studied through econometric analyses. Second, the data collecting procedure enables to control for the productive caracteris- tics of the candidates as well as the frequency at which they apply for jobs. The implementation of the pair audit procedure has to abide by several principes to be unbiased. Standard econometric studies usually conclude to the non significance of the wage discrimination hypothesis. Pair audit studies conclude to hiring discrimination.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 17 (2003)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 55-87

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2003_num_17_3_1466
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2003.1466
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/rfeco

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