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Discrimination against female migrants wearing headscarves

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  • Doris Weichselbaumer

Abstract

Germany is currently experiencing a high influx of Muslim migrants. From a policy perspective, integration of migrants into the labor market is crucial. Hence, a field experiment was conducted that examined the employment chances of females with backgrounds of migration from Muslim countries, and especially of those wearing headscarves. It focused on Turkish migrants, who have constituted a large demographic group in Germany since the 1970s. In the field experiment presented here, job applications for three fictitious female characters with identical qualifications were sent out in response to job advertisements: one applicant had a German name, one a Turkish name, and one had a Turkish name and was wearing a headscarf in the photograph included in the application material. Germany was the ideal location for the experiment as job seekers typically attach their picture to their résumé. High levels of discrimination were found particularly against the migrant wearing a headscarf.

Suggested Citation

  • Doris Weichselbaumer, 2016. "Discrimination against female migrants wearing headscarves," Economics working papers 2016-09, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  • Handle: RePEc:jku:econwp:2016_09
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Study: Employers Are Less Likely to Hire a Woman Who Wears a Headscarf
      by Sarah Green Carmichael in HBR Blog Network on 2017-05-26 17:05:09

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Daviti Jibuti, 2018. "Discrimination against Workers with Visible Tattoos: Experimental Evidence from Germany," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp628, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    2. Becker, Sascha O. & Fernandes, Ana & Weichselbaumer, Doris, 2019. "Discrimination in hiring based on potential and realized fertility: Evidence from a large-scale field experiment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 139-152.
    3. Sansani, Shahar, 2017. "Are the Religiously Observant Discriminated Against in the Rental Housing Market? Experimental Evidence from Israel," MPRA Paper 81424, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Thijssen, Lex & Lancee, Bram & Veit, Susanne & Yemane, Ruta, 2021. "Discrimination against Turkish minorities in Germany and the Netherlands: field experimental evidence on the effect of diagnostic information on labour market outcomes," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 1222-1239.
    5. Attakrit Leckcivilize & Alexander Straub, 2018. "Headscarf and job recruitment—lifting the veil of labour market discrimination," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 7(1), pages 1-32, December.
    6. Zerrin Salikutluk & Johannes Giesecke & Martin Kroh, 2020. "The Situation of Female Immigrants on the German Labour Market: A Multi-Perspective Approach," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1072, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    7. Eva Zschirnt, 2020. "Evidence of Hiring Discrimination Against the Second Generation: Results from a Correspondence Test in the Swiss Labour Market," Journal of International Migration and Integration, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 563-585, June.
    8. Artavia-Mora, Luis & Bedi, Arjun S. & Rieger, Matthias, 2018. "Help, Prejudice and Headscarves," IZA Discussion Papers 11460, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Bonin, Holger & Rinne, Ulf, 2017. "Machbarkeitsstudie zur Durchführung einer Evaluation der arbeitsmarktpolitischen Integrationsmaßnahmen für Flüchtlinge," IZA Research Reports 76, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Doris Weichselbaumer, 2017. "Discrimination Against Migrant Job Applicants in Austria: An Experimental Study," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 18(2), pages 237-265, May.
    11. Campos-Vazquez, Raymundo M. & Gonzalez, Eva, 2020. "Obesity and hiring discrimination," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 37(C).
    12. Corekcioglu, Gozde, 2021. "Unveiling the effects of a headscarf ban: Evidence from municipal jobs in Turkey," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 382-404.
    13. Baert, Stijn, 2017. "Hiring Discrimination: An Overview of (Almost) All Correspondence Experiments Since 2005," IZA Discussion Papers 10738, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Veit, Susanne & Thijsen, Lex, 2019. "Almost identical but still treated differently: hiring discrimination against foreign-born and domestic-born minorities," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 1285-1304.
    15. Mongoljin Batsaikhan & Mette Gørtz & John Kennes & Ran Sun Lyng & Daniel Monte & Norovsambuu Tumennasan, 2019. "Daycare Choice and Ethnic Diversity: Evidence from a Randomized Survey," Economics Working Papers 2019-02, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    16. Koopmans, Ruud & Veit, Susanne & Yemane, Ruta, 2018. "Ethnische Hierarchien in der Bewerberauswahl: Ein Feldexperiment zu den Ursachen von Arbeitsmarktdiskriminierung," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Migration, Integration, Transnationalization SP VI 2018-104, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    17. Koopmans, Ruud & Veit, Susanne & Yemane, Ruta, 2019. "Taste or statistics? A correspondence study of ethnic, racial and religious labour market discrimination in Germany," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 233-252.
    18. Anaïd Lindemann & Jörg Stolz, 2018. "The Muslim Employment Gap, Human Capital, and Ethno-Religious Penalties: Evidence from Switzerland," Social Inclusion, Cogitatio Press, vol. 6(2), pages 151-161.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Discrimination; Muslim religion; Headscarf; Hiring; Experiment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C93 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Field Experiments
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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