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Are entrepreneurs different across countries?

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  • Marc Cowling

Abstract

Results show that there are significant differences across countries in terms of who becomes an entrepreneur. In particular age, gender and education were found to be key variables, although the nature and strength of the relationship varies considerably across countries. It was concluded that entrepreneurs are not a homogenous group in the EU.

Suggested Citation

  • Marc Cowling, 2000. "Are entrepreneurs different across countries?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(12), pages 785-789.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:7:y:2000:i:12:p:785-789
    DOI: 10.1080/135048500444804
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Gazmend Qorraj, 2017. "Does Education Matter for Entrepreneurship Activities? The Case of Kosovo," International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning, International School for Social and Business Studies, Celje, Slovenia, vol. 6(1), pages 131-144.
    2. Sarah Lasso & Emerson Mainardes & Fabio Motoki, 2019. "Why do entrepreneurs open tech startups? A comparative study between Brazilian and foreign enterprises," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 233-255, March.
    3. Peter van der Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Progress: Climbing the Entrepreneurial Ladder in Europe and the US," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-070/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Mar 2010.
    4. Dominik Buttler & Eva Sierminska, 2020. "Career or Flexible Work Arrangements? Gender Differences in Self-employment in a Young Market Economy," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 70-95, March.
    5. Lianne Hans & Sierdjan Koster, 2018. "Urbanization and start-up rates in different geographies: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 1033-1054, December.
    6. Dimitris Christelis & Raquel Fonseca, 2015. "Labor Market Policies and Self-Employment Transitions of Older Workers," Cahiers de recherche 1516, Chaire de recherche Industrielle Alliance sur les enjeux économiques des changements démographiques.
    7. Sarah V. Lasso & Emerson W. Mainardes & Fabio Y. S. Motoki, 2018. "Types of Technological Entrepreneurs: a Study in a Large Emerging Economy," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 9(2), pages 378-401, June.
    8. Andrew Burke & Marc Cowling, 2020. "On the critical role of freelancers in agile economies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 393-398, August.
    9. Schanne, Norbert & Weyh, Antje, 2009. "What makes start-ups out of unemployment different?," IAB Discussion Paper 200904, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    10. Cristian Popescu & Laura Diaconu, 2009. "The relationship between the level of education and the development state of a country," Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iasi - Stiinte Economice, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 56, pages 475-480, November.
    11. Nadia Simoes & Nuno Crespo & Sandrina B. Moreira, 2016. "Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 783-806, September.
    12. Shashwati Banerjee & Kishor Goswami, 2020. "Self-employed or Paid Employed: Who can Earn more among the Slum Dwellers and Why?," Progress in Development Studies, , vol. 20(1), pages 7-25, January.
    13. repec:cii:cepiei:2014-q2-138-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Cowling, Marc & Millán, José María & Yue, Wei, 2019. "Two decades of European self-employment: Is the answer to who becomes self-employed different over time and countries?," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 12(C).
    15. Ferrante, Francesco & Federici, Daniela & Parisi, Valentino, 2017. "University Students and Entrepreneurship. Some insights from a population-based survey," MPRA Paper 76980, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Hoogendoorn, B. & van der Zwan, P.W. & Thurik, A.R., 2011. "Social Entrepreneurship and Performance: The Role of Perceived Barriers and Risk," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2011-016-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    17. Kadir Atalay & Woo-Yung Kim & Stephen Whelan, 2014. "The Decline of the Self-Employment Rate in Australia," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 47(4), pages 472-489, December.
    18. Chantal Hartog & Brigitte Hoogendoorn & Sophie Bacq & Jan Lepoutre, 2011. "Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Exploring individual and organizational characteristics," Scales Research Reports H201110, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    19. Philipp Koellinger & Maria Minniti & Christian Schade, 2008. "Seeing the World with Different Eyes," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-035/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 11 Mar 2011.
    20. Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr & Tina Xu, 2017. "Personality Traits of Entrepreneurs: A Review of Recent Literature," NBER Working Papers 24097, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Yannis Caloghirou & Ioannis Giotopoulos & Alexandra Kontolaimou & Aggelos Tsakanikas, 0. "Inside the black box of high-growth firms in a crisis-hit economy: corporate strategy, employee human capital and R&D capabilities," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-27.
    22. André Stel & Peter van der Zwan, 2020. "Analyzing the changing education distributions of solo self-employed workers and employer entrepreneurs in Europe," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 429-445, August.
    23. Ferrante, Francesco & Sabatini, Fabio, 2007. "Education, social capital and entrepreneurial selection in Italy," MPRA Paper 2451, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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