IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/sae/jocore/v57y2013i1p117-142.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Self-employment and Conflict in Colombia

Author

Listed:
  • Carlos Bozzoli
  • Tilman Brück
  • Nina Wald

Abstract

Many Colombians are confronted with the ongoing conflict that influences their decision making in everyday life, including their behavior in labor markets. This study focuses on the impact of violent conflict on self-employment, enlarging the usual determinants with a set of conflict variables. Our estimation strategy compares three different estimates: one from fixed-effects panel data (OLS-FE), estimates using lagged conflict indicators instead of contemporaneous regressors, and instrumental variables (IV-FE) estimates. Our results show that a one standard deviation increase in net displacement rates increases the rate of self-employment by about 7 percent points. Dividing the self-employed into different sectors (services and agriculture), we find that net displacement increases self-employment in the services sector but has no effect in agriculture that is affected by attacks by rebel and paramilitary groups, instead. Looking at the income of self-employed individuals, an influx of displaced reduces sharply hourly income in the self-employment sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Carlos Bozzoli & Tilman Brück & Nina Wald, 2013. "Self-employment and Conflict in Colombia," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 57(1), pages 117-142, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:jocore:v:57:y:2013:i:1:p:117-142
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://jcr.sagepub.com/content/57/1/117.abstract
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Camilo Mondragón-Vélez & Ximena Peña, 2010. "Business Ownership and Self-Employment in Developing Economies: The Colombian Case," NBER Chapters, in: International Differences in Entrepreneurship, pages 89-127, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Klapper, Leora F. & Panos, Georgios A., 2009. "Entrepreneurship in post-conflict transition : the role of informality and access to finance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4935, The World Bank.
    3. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2003. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-046/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Sep 2004.
    4. Sindy A. González & Héctor J. Villarreal, 2006. "More Pushed than Pulled: Self-employment in rural Mexico ten years after NAFTA," Working Papers 20063, Escuela de Graduados en Administración Pública y Políticas Públicas, Campus Monterrey, revised Nov 2006.
    5. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2005. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Education in Developing Economies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 19(2), pages 225-261.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Milica Kecmanovic, 2013. "The Short-run Effects of the Croatian War on Education, Employment, and Earnings," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 57(6), pages 991-1010, December.
    2. Nadia Simoes & Nuno Crespo & Sandrina B. Moreira, 2016. "Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 783-806, September.
    3. Ana María Ibá-ez, 2014. "Growth in forced displacement: cross-country, sub-national and household evidence on potential determinants," Chapters, in: Robert E.B. Lucas (ed.), International Handbook on Migration and Economic Development, chapter 13, pages 350-387, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Eliud Dismas Moyi, 2019. "The effect of mobile technology on self-employment in Kenya," Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, Springer;UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship, vol. 9(1), pages 1-13, December.
    5. Martin-Shields, Charles & Camacho, Sonia & Taborda, Rodrigo & Ruhe, Constantin, 2019. "Digitalisation in the lives of urban migrants: Evidence from Bogota," Discussion Papers 12/2019, German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
    6. Ceren Baysan & Marshall Burke & Felipe GonzaÌ lez & Solomon Hsiang & Edward Miguel, 2019. "Economic and Non-Economic Factors in Violence: Evidence from Organized Crime, Suicides and Climate in Mexico," HiCN Working Papers 292, Households in Conflict Network.
    7. Morales, Juan S., 2018. "The impact of internal displacement on destination communities: Evidence from the Colombian conflict," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 132-150.
    8. Brück, Tilman & Llussá, Fernanda & Tavares, José, 2010. "Perceptions, Expectations, and Entrepreneurship: The Role of Extreme Events," IZA Discussion Papers 5351, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Ciarli, Tommaso & Kofol, Chiara & Menon, Carlo, 2015. "Business as unusual. An explanation of the increase of private economic activity in high-conflict areas in Afghanistan," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 65015, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Tilman Brück & Wim Naudé & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2013-028, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. Tony Addison & Rachel Gisselquist & Miguel Niño-Zarazúa & Saurabh Singhal, 2015. "Needs vs Expediency - Poverty Reduction and Social Development in Post-Conflict Countries," Working Papers id:7371, eSocialSciences.
    12. Michaelsen, Maren M., 2012. "Mental Health and Labour Supply – Evidence from Mexico's Ongoing Violent Conflicts," Ruhr Economic Papers 378, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    13. Tony Addison & Rachel M. Gisselquist & Miguel Niño-Zarazúa & Saurabh Singhal, 2015. "Needs versus Expediency: Poverty Reduction and Social Development in Post-conflict Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2015-063, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Brück, Tilman & Naudé, Wim & Verwimp, Philip, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 028, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    15. Tony Addison & Rachel Gisselquist & Miguel Niño-Zarazúa & Saurabh Singhal, 2015. "Needs vs Expediency - Poverty Reduction and Social Development in Post-Conflict Countries," Working Papers id:7371, eSocialSciences.
    16. Ivlevs, Artjoms & Veliziotis, Michail, 2017. "Beyond Conflict: Long-Term Labour Market Integration of Internally Displaced Persons in Post-Socialist Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 11215, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    17. Brück, Tilman & Llussá, Fernanda & Tavares, José A., 2011. "Entrepreneurship: The role of extreme events," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(S1), pages 78-88.
    18. Silvia Jarauta Bernal, 2011. "Beyond Coping. Risk Management in the West Bank," Research Working Papers 42, MICROCON - A Micro Level Analysis of Violent Conflict.
    19. Florian Leon & Ibrahima Dosso, 2020. "Civil conflict and firm recovery: Evidence from post-electoral crisis in Côte d'Ivoire," Working Papers hal-02865559, HAL.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ferrante, Francesco & Sabatini, Fabio, 2007. "Education, social capital and entrepreneurial selection in Italy," MPRA Paper 2451, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Francesco Quatraro & Marco Vivarelli, 2015. "Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 30(2), pages 277-305.
    3. Enrico Santarelli & Hien Tran, 2013. "The interplay of human and social capital in shaping entrepreneurial performance: the case of Vietnam," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 435-458, February.
    4. repec:dgr:rugggd:gd-114 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Abubakar Sadiq Kasum & Umar Gunu, 2017. "Entrepreneurship in Underdeveloped Economies: A Study of Nigeria (Przedsiebiorczosc w gospodarkach slabo rozwinietych na przykladzie Nigerii)," Research Reports, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 1(23), pages 48-61.
    6. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2009. "Where does regulation hurt? Evidence from new businesses across countries," NBER Working Papers 14747, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Halvarsson, Daniel & Korpi, Martin & Wennberg, Karl, 2018. "Entrepreneurship and income inequality," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 275-293.
    8. Nadia Simoes & Nuno Crespo & Sandrina B. Moreira, 2016. "Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 783-806, September.
    9. Dang,Hai-Anh H. & Lanjouw,Peter F., 2013. "Measuring poverty dynamics with synthetic panels based on cross-sections," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6504, The World Bank.
    10. Fossen, Frank M. & Büttner, Tobias J.M., 2013. "The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 66-84.
    11. Ayal Kimhi, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and income inequality in southern Ethiopia," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 81-91, January.
    12. Joanna Tyrowicz & Magdalena Smyk & Barbara Liberda, 2017. "Talent workers as entrepreneurs: a new approach to aspirational self-employment," Bank i Kredyt, Narodowy Bank Polski, vol. 48(6), pages 571-592.
    13. Micheline Goedhuys & Leo Sleuwaegen, 2010. "High-growth entrepreneurial firms in Africa: a quantile regression approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 31-51, January.
    14. Wyrwich, Michael, 2013. "Can socioeconomic heritage produce a lost generation with regard to entrepreneurship?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 667-682.
    15. Camilo Mondragón-Vélez & Ximena Peña & Daniel Wills, 2010. "Labor Market Rigidities and Informality in Colombia," Economía Journal, The Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association - LACEA, vol. 0(Fall 2010), pages 65-101, August.
    16. Kamilia LOUKIL, 2020. "Intellectual property rights, human capital and types of entrepreneurship in emerging and developing countries," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(622), S), pages 21-40, Spring.
    17. Greene, Francis J. & Han, Liang & Martin, Sean & Zhang, Song & Wittert, Gary, 2014. "Testosterone is associated with self-employment among Australian men," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 13(C), pages 76-84.
    18. Sanjay Banerji & Rajesh S. N. Raj & Kunal Sen, 2016. "Monitoring Costs, Credit Constraints and Entrepreneurship," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(5), pages 573-599, September.
    19. Rafael La Porta & Andrei Shleifer, 2008. "The Unofficial Economy and Economic Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(2 (Fall)), pages 275-363.
    20. Searing, Elizabeth A.M. & Rios-Avila, Fernando & Lecy, Jesse D., 2013. "The impact of psychological trauma on wages in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 165-173.
    21. M. Thomas, 2009. "The impact of education histories on the decision to become self-employed: a study of young, aspiring, minority business owners," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 455-466, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    self-employment; civil conflict; rural labor markets; Colombia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:jocore:v:57:y:2013:i:1:p:117-142. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (SAGE Publications). General contact details of provider: http://pss.la.psu.edu/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.