IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?

Listed author(s):
  • Nadia Simoes
  • Nuno Crespo
  • Sandrina B. Moreira

The analysis of the decision to enter into self-employment is a hot topic in economic literature. Among the elements that most directly influence this decision, individual factors are central. This study produces a comprehensive survey of the impact of these factors, covering both the theoretical arguments and the main conclusions emerging from the empirical studies. We analyze twelve critical determinant factors of the entry into self-employment grouped into seven categories: (i) basic individual characteristics (gender, age, and marital status and children); (ii) family background (parents and spouse); (iii) personality characteristics (risk attitude and other psychological traits); (iv) human capital (education and experience); (v) health condition; (vi) nationality and ethnicity; and (vii) access to financial resources. While for some of the factors solid conclusions can be found, for others additional research is still needed in order to shed further light on their influence.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/joes.2016.30.issue-4
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Economic Surveys.

Volume (Year): 30 (2016)
Issue (Month): 4 (September)
Pages: 783-806

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:30:y:2016:i:4:p:783-806
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0950-0804

Order Information: Web: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/subs.asp?ref=0950-0804

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Nathalie Colombier & Laurent Denant Boemont & Youenn Loheac & David Masclet, 2008. "Risk aversion: an experiment with self-employed workers and salaried workers," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(10), pages 791-795.
  2. Thomas Dohmen & Armin Falk & David Huffman & Uwe Sunde, 2012. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Risk and Trust Attitudes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 645-677.
  3. Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2006. "Entrepreneurship, Frictions, and Wealth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(5), pages 835-870, October.
  4. Linda N. Edwards & Elizabeth Field-Hendrey, 2002. "Home-Based Work and Women's Labor Force Decisions," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 170-200, January.
  5. Niels Bosma & Mirjam van Praag & Roy Thurik & Gerrit de Wit, 2004. "The Value of Human and Social Capital Investments for the Business Performance of Startups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 227-236, October.
  6. Alina Sorgner & Michael Fritsch, 2013. "Occupational Choice and Self-Employment - Are They Related?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2013-001, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
  7. Thomas Åstebro & Jing Chen & Peter Thompson, 2011. "Stars and Misfits: Self-Employment and Labor Market Frictions," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(11), pages 1999-2017, November.
  8. Thomas Dohmen & Armin Falk & David Huffman & Uwe Sunde & Jürgen Schupp & Gert G. Wagner, 2011. "Individual Risk Attitudes: Measurement, Determinants, And Behavioral Consequences," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 522-550, June.
  9. Amelie Constant & Klaus Zimmermann, 2006. "The Making of Entrepreneurs in Germany: Are Native Men and Immigrants Alike?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 279-300, April.
  10. Bosma, Niels & Hessels, Jolanda & Schutjens, Veronique & Praag, Mirjam Van & Verheul, Ingrid, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and role models," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 410-424.
  11. Daniel Lechmann & Claus Schnabel, 2014. "Are the self-employed really jacks-of-all-trades? Testing the assumptions and implications of Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship with German data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 59-76, January.
  12. Moore, Robert L, 1983. "Employer Discrimination: Evidence from Self-Employed Workers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 496-501, August.
  13. Michael Stuetzer & Martin Obschonka & Eva Schmitt-Rodermund, 2013. "Balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 93-114, June.
  14. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment: Evidence from three generations," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 261-276, April.
  15. Joachim Wagner, 2006. "Are nascent entrepreneurs 'Jacks-of-all-trades'? A test of Lazear's theory of entrepreneurship with German data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(20), pages 2415-2419.
  16. Croson, David C. & Minniti, Maria, 2012. "Slipping the surly bonds: The value of autonomy in self-employment," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 355-365.
  17. McGrath, Rita Gunther & MacMillan, Ian C. & Yang, Elena Ai-Yuan & Tsai, William, 1992. "Does culture endure, or is it malleable? Issues for entrepreneurial economic development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(6), pages 441-458, November.
  18. von Greiff, Jenny, 2009. "Displacement and self-employment entry," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 556-565, October.
  19. Leah Platt Boustan & Carola Frydman & Robert A. Margo, 2014. "Human Capital in History: The American Record," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bous12-1, November.
  20. Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrel & John Sessions, 2006. "Self-Employment Matching: An Analysis of Dual Earner Couples and Working Households," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 155-172, March.
  21. Michael Fritsch & Alina Rusakova, 2010. "Personality Traits, Self-Employment, and Professions," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 343, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  22. Ozkan Eren & Ozan Sula, 2012. "The Effect of Ability on Young Men's Self-Employment Decision: Evidence from the NELS," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(4), pages 916-935, October.
  23. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt & Shakir Hussain & Ghazi Shukur, 2013. "Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: a multilevel approach," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(3), pages 885-910, June.
  24. Vincenzo Quadrini, 2000. "Entrepreneurship, Saving and Social Mobility," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 3(1), pages 1-40, January.
  25. Michael Hout & Harvey Rosen, 2000. "Self-Employment, Family Background, and Race," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 670-692.
  26. Gill, Andrew M, 1988. "Choice of Employment Status and the Wages of Employees and the Self-employed: Some Further Evidence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(3), pages 229-234, July-Sept.
  27. Carr, Jon C. & Sequeira, Jennifer M., 2007. "Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A Theory of Planned Behavior approach," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(10), pages 1090-1098, October.
  28. Gindling, T.H. & Newhouse, David, 2014. "Self-Employment in the Developing World," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 313-331.
  29. Cramer, J. S. & Hartog, J. & Jonker, N. & Van Praag, C. M., 2002. "Low risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 29-36, May.
  30. Devine, Theresa J, 1994. "Changes in Wage-and-Salary Returns to Skill and the Recent Rise in Female Self-Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 108-113, May.
  31. Zissimopoulos, Julie M. & Karoly, Lynn A., 2007. "Transitions to self-employment at older ages: The role of wealth, health, health insurance and other factors," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 269-295, April.
  32. Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrell & Mark N. Harris, 2011. "Modeling The Incidence Of Self‐Employment: Individual And Employment Type Heterogeneity," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 29(4), pages 605-619, October.
  33. Bengtsson, Claes & Persson, Mats & Willenhag, Peter, 2005. "Gender and overconfidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 199-203, February.
  34. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
  35. Blanchflower, David G., 2000. "Self-employment in OECD countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 471-505, September.
  36. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
  37. Friedberg, Rachel M, 2000. "You Can't Take It with You? Immigrant Assimilation and the Portability of Human Capital," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 221-251, April.
  38. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
  39. Lu, Jiangyong & Tao, Zhigang, 2010. "Determinants of entrepreneurial activities in China," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 261-273, May.
  40. Disney, Richard & Gathergood, John, 2009. "Housing wealth, liquidity constraints and self-employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 79-88, January.
  41. Michael Fritsch & Alexander S. Kritikos & Alina Rusakova, 2012. "Who Starts a Business and Who Is Self-Employed in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1184, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  42. Philipp Koellinger & Maria Minniti & Christian Schade, 2013. "Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Propensity," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 75(2), pages 213-234, April.
  43. Victor R. Fuchs, 1982. "Self-Employment and Labor Force Participation of Older Males," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(3), pages 339-357.
  44. Nuno Crespo & Nádia Simões & José Castro Pinto, 2013. "Determinant factors of job quality in Europe," Working Papers Series 2 13-01, ISCTE-IUL, Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL).
  45. Clark, Andrew E., 1997. "Job satisfaction and gender: Why are women so happy at work?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 341-372, December.
  46. Marco Caliendo & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2008. "Is Entrepreneurial Success Predictable? An Ex-Ante Analysis of the Character-Based Approach," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(2), pages 189-214, 05.
  47. Åstebro, Thomas & Chen, Jing, 2014. "The entrepreneurial earnings puzzle: Mismeasurement or real?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 88-105.
  48. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
  49. Michael D. Giandrea & Kevin E. Cahill & Joseph F. Quinn, Ph.D., 2008. "Self-Employment Transitions among Older American Workers with Career Jobs," Working Papers 418, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  50. Robert W. Fairlie, 2004. "Recent Trends in Ethnic and Racial Business Ownership," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 203-218, October.
  51. Ira N. Gang & Catherine Y. Co & Myeong-Su Yun, 2002. "Self-Employment and Wage Earning: Hungary During Transition," Departmental Working Papers 200219, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  52. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
  53. Poschke, Markus, 2013. "Who becomes an entrepreneur? Labor market prospects and occupational choice," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 693-710.
  54. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 1996. "Ethnic and Racial Self-Employment Differences and Possible Explanations," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(4), pages 757-793.
  55. Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-266, May.
  56. Bates, Timothy, 1995. "Self-employment entry across industry groups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 143-156, March.
  57. Hintermaier, Thomas & Steinberger, Thomas, 2005. "Occupational choice and the private equity premium puzzle," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1765-1783, October.
  58. Yannis Georgellis & Howard Wall, 2005. "Gender differences in self-employment," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-342.
  59. Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere & Willie Belton, 2012. "Coming to America: Does Having a Developed Home Country Matter for Self-Employment in the United States?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 538-542, May.
  60. repec:use:tkiwps:332 is not listed on IDEAS
  61. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Klapper, Leora F. & Panos, Georgios A., 2009. "Entrepreneurship in post-conflict transition : the role of informality and access to finance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4935, The World Bank.
  62. Nathalie Colombier & David Masclet, 2008. "Intergenerational correlation in self employment: some further evidence from French ECHP data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 423-437, April.
  63. Betsey Stevenson & Justin Wolfers, 2007. "Marriage and Divorce: Changes and their Driving Forces," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 27-52, Spring.
  64. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos, 2014. "Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 787-814, April.
  65. Robert W. Fairlie & Harry A. Krashinsky, 2012. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, And Entrepreneurship Revisited," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 58(2), pages 279-306, June.
  66. Parker, Simon C., 2008. "Entrepreneurship among married couples in the United States: A simultaneous probit approach," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 459-481, June.
  67. Kidd, Michael P, 1993. "Immigrant Wage Differentials and the Role of Self-Employment in Australia," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(60), pages 92-115, June.
  68. Fairchild, Gregory B., 2010. "Intergenerational ethnic enclave influences on the likelihood of being self-employed," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 290-304, May.
  69. Michael Fritsch & Alina Sorgner, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Creative Professions: A Micro-Level Analysis," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 538, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  70. Bhagwati, Jagdish & Hanson, Gordon H (ed.), 2009. "Skilled Immigration Today: Prospects, Problems, and Policies," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195382433.
  71. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos, 2009. "Risk attitudes of nascent entrepreneurs–new evidence from an experimentally validated survey," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 153-167, February.
  72. Fairlie, Robert W, 1999. "The Absence of the African-American Owned Business: An Analysis of the Dynamics of Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(1), pages 80-108, January.
  73. Joern H. Block & Marcus Wagner, 2010. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earning s Differentials," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 62(2), pages 154-174, April.
  74. Evgueni Vinogradov & Lars Kolvereid, 2007. "Cultural background, human capital and self-employment rates among immigrants in Norway," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 359-376, July.
  75. Martin Falk & Thomas Leoni, 2009. "Characteristics of self-employment among university graduates," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(10), pages 1065-1071.
  76. Ken Clark & Stephen Drinkwater, 2010. "Patterns of ethnic self-employment in time and space: evidence from British Census microdata," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 323-338, April.
  77. Vania Sena & Jonathan Scott & Stephen Roper, 2012. "Gender, borrowing patterns and self-employment: some evidence for England," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 467-480, May.
  78. Marc Cowling, 2000. "Are entrepreneurs different across countries?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(12), pages 785-789.
  79. Erik Hurst & Annamaria Lusardi, 2004. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 319-347, April.
  80. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521728355, December.
  81. Carlos Bozzoli & Tilman Brück & Nina Wald, 2013. "Self-employment and Conflict in Colombia," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 57(1), pages 117-142, February.
  82. Esteban Lafuente & Yancy Vaillant & Josep Rialp, 2007. "Regional Differences in the Influence of Role Models: Comparing the Entrepreneurial Process of Rural Catalonia," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(6), pages 779-796.
  83. Bates, Timothy, 1997. "Financing small business creation: The case of Chinese and Korean immigrant entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 109-124, March.
  84. Tami Gurley-Calvez & Amelia Biehl & Katherine Harper, 2009. "Time-Use Patterns and Women Entrepreneurs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 139-144, May.
  85. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
  86. Robert E. Lucas Jr., 1978. "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 508-523, Autumn.
  87. Baumann, Florian & Brändle, Tobias, 2012. "Self-employment, educational attainment and employment protection legislation," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 846-859.
  88. George J. Borjas, 1986. "The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(4), pages 485-506.
  89. Ken S. Cavalluzzo, 2002. "Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 641-680, October.
  90. Thomas Leoni & Martin Falk, 2010. "Gender and field of study as determinants of self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 167-185, February.
  91. Blanchard, Lloyd & Zhao, Bo & Yinger, John, 2008. "Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 467-497, March.
  92. Williams, Donald R., 2012. "Gender discrimination and self-employment dynamics in Europe," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 153-158.
  93. Burke, Andrew E & FitzRoy, Felix R & Nolan, Michael A, 2000. " When Less Is More: Distinguishing between Entrepreneurial Choice and Performance," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(5), pages 565-587, December.
  94. Michael Stuetzer & Martin Obschonka & Per Davidsson & Eva Schmitt-Rodermund, 2013. "Where do entrepreneurial skills come from?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(12), pages 1183-1186, August.
  95. Åstebro, Thomas & Thompson, Peter, 2011. "Entrepreneurs, Jacks of all trades or Hobos?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 637-649, June.
  96. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 2000. "Trends in Self-Employment among White and Black Men during the Twentieth Century," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 643-669.
  97. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-748, August.
  98. Borjas, George J & Bronars, Stephen G, 1989. "Consumer Discrimination and Self-employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 581-605, June.
  99. Phillip Kim & Howard Aldrich & Lisa Keister, 2006. "Access (Not) Denied: The Impact of Financial, Human, and Cultural Capital on Entrepreneurial Entryin the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 5-22, August.
  100. Andrew Henley, 2005. "Job Creation by the Self-employed: The Roles of Entrepreneurial and Financial Capital," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 175-196, September.
  101. Kræn Blume & Mette Ejrnæs & Helena Nielsen & Allan Würtz, 2009. "Labor market transitions of immigrants with emphasis on marginalization and self-employment," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(4), pages 881-908, October.
  102. Mandelman, Federico S. & Montes-Rojas, Gabriel V., 2009. "Is Self-employment and Micro-entrepreneurship a Desired Outcome?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1914-1925, December.
  103. Chen, Chao C. & Greene, Patricia Gene & Crick, Ann, 1998. "Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 295-316, July.
  104. Silva, Olmo, 2007. "The Jack-of-All-Trades entrepreneur: Innate talent or acquired skill?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 118-123, November.
  105. Greg Hundley, 2001. "Why Women Earn Less Than Men in Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 22(4), pages 817-829, October.
  106. David G. Blanchflower, 2004. "Self-Employment: More may not be better," NBER Working Papers 10286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  107. William Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2009. "Financing Constraints and Entrepreneurship," NBER Working Papers 15498, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  108. Le, Anh T, 1999. " Empirical Studies of Self-Employment," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(4), pages 381-416, September.
  109. Simone Chlosta & Holger Patzelt & Sabine Klein & Christian Dormann, 2012. "Parental role models and the decision to become self-employed: The moderating effect of personality," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 121-138, January.
  110. Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence from Panel Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 539-565, November.
  111. Kameliia Petrova, 2012. "Part-time entrepreneurship and financial constraints: evidence from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 473-493, September.
  112. Luisa Rosti & Francesco Chelli, 2005. "Gender Discrimination, Entrepreneurial Talent and Self-Employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 131-142, March.
  113. Julie Zissimopoulos & Lynn A. Karoly & Qian Gu, 2009. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Self-Employment: The Case of Older Workers," Working Papers 725, RAND Corporation.
  114. Levesque, Moren & Minniti, Maria, 2006. "The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 177-194, March.
  115. Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
  116. Yannis Georgellis & John Sessions & Nikolaos Tsitsianis, 2005. "Windfalls, Wealth, and the Transition to Self-Employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 407-428, December.
  117. Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan Jr., 2002. "The Impact of Host-Country Schooling on Earnings: A Study of Male Immigrants in the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 37(1), pages 63-105.
  118. Jonathan Levie, 2007. "Immigration, In-Migration, Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 143-169, March.
  119. Victor R. Fuchs, 1980. "Self-Employment and Labor Force Participation of Older Males (Revised)," NBER Working Papers 0584, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  120. Y Georgellis & J G Sessions & N Tsitsianis, 2005. "Self-Employment Longitudinal Dynamics: A Review of the Literature," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 10(2), pages 51-84, September.
  121. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1995. "Testing Hypotheses of Immigrant Self-Employment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(1), pages 194-204.
  122. Jenny Nykvist, 2008. "Entrepreneurship and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Sweden," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 110(1), pages 23-43, March.
  123. Lin, Zhengxi & Picot, Garnett & Compton, Janice, 2000. "The Entry and Exit Dynamics of Self-Employment in Canada," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 105-125, September.
  124. Amelia Biehl & Tami Gurley-Calvez & Brian Hill, 2014. "Self-employment of older Americans: do recessions matter?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 297-309, February.
  125. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
  126. Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2008. "Education And Entrepreneurship Selection And Performance: A Review Of The Empirical Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 795-841, December.
  127. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899604, December.
  128. Mohapatra, Sandeep & Rozelle, Scott & Goodhue, Rachael, 2007. "The Rise of Self-Employment in Rural China: Development or Distress?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 163-181, January.
  129. Pernilla Andersson Joona & Eskil Wadensjö, 2013. "The best and the brightest or the least successful? Self-employment entry among male wage-earners in Sweden," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 155-172, January.
  130. Ahn, Taehyun, 2010. "Attitudes toward risk and self-employment of young workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 434-442, April.
  131. Koellinger, Philipp & Minniti, Maria & Schade, Christian, 2007. ""I think I can, I think I can": Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 502-527, August.
  132. Altin Vejsiu, 2011. "Incentives to self-employment decision in Sweden," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(4), pages 379-403.
  133. Magnus Lofstrom & Timothy Bates, 2013. "African Americans’ pursuit of self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 73-86, January.
  134. Simon C. Parker & Martin T. Robson, 2004. "Explaining International Variations in Self-Employment: Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 287-301, October.
  135. Ekelund, Jesper & Johansson, Edvard & Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta & Lichtermann, Dirk, 2005. "Self-employment and risk aversion--evidence from psychological test data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 649-659, October.
  136. Robert Blackburn & Monder Ram, 2006. "Fix or fixation? The contributions and limitations of entrepreneurship and small firms to combating social exclusion," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 73-89, January.
  137. Mats Hammarstedt & Ghazi Shukur, 2009. "Testing the home-country self-employment hypothesis on immigrants in Sweden," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(7), pages 745-748.
  138. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Transmission of self-employment across immigrant generations: the importance of ethnic background and gender," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 555-577, December.
  139. Melanie Jones & Paul Latreille, 2011. "Disability and self-employment: evidence for the UK," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(27), pages 4161-4178.
  140. Brown, Sarah & Dietrich, Michael & Ortiz-Nuñez, Aurora & Taylor, Karl, 2011. "Self-employment and attitudes towards risk: Timing and unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 425-433, June.
  141. Burke, Andrew E & FitzRoy, Felix R & Nolan, Michael A, 2002. "Self-Employment Wealth and Job Creation: The Roles of Gender, Non-pecuniary Motivation and Entrepreneurial Ability," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 255-270, November.
  142. Kevin E. Cahill & Michael D. Giandrea & Joseph F. Quinn, 2013. "New Evidence on Self-Employment Transitions Among Older Americans with Career Jobs," Working Papers 463, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  143. Rees, Hedley & Shah, Anup, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of Self-employment in the U.K," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, January.
  144. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Self-employment matching: an analysis of dual-earner couples in Sweden," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(3), pages 2197-2209.
  145. Chris Dawson & Andrew Henley & Paul Latreille, 2014. "Individual Motives for Choosing Self-employment in the UK: Does Region Matter?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(5), pages 804-822, May.
  146. Johansson, Edvard, 2000. " Self-Employment and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Finland," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 102(1), pages 123-134, March.
  147. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy & Grilo, Isabel & van der Zwan, Peter, 2012. "Explaining preferences and actual involvement in self-employment: Gender and the entrepreneurial personality," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 325-341.
  148. Michael J. Pisani & José A. Pagán, 2004. "Self-employment in the era of the new economic model in Latin America: a case study from Nicaragua," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 335-350, July.
  149. Dunn, Thomas & Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, 2000. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment: Evidence from Intergenerational Links," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 282-305, April.
  150. Simon Parker & Jonathan Rougier, 2007. "The retirement behaviour of the self-employed in Britain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(6), pages 697-713.
  151. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-474, June.
  152. Van Praag, C Mirjam & Van Ophem, Hans, 1995. "Determinants of Willingness and Opportunity to Start as an Entrepreneur," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(4), pages 513-540.
  153. Kent Eliasson & Hans Westlund, 2013. "Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(2), pages 479-514, April.
  154. Bruce D. Meyer, 1990. "Why Are There So Few Black Entrepreneurs?," NBER Working Papers 3537, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  155. Sexton, Donald L. & Bowman-Upton, Nancy, 1990. "Female and male entrepreneurs: Psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 29-36, January.
  156. Han, Linghui & Hare, Denise, 2013. "The link between credit markets and self-employment choice among households in rural China," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 52-64.
  157. Dan Lovallo & Colin Camerer, 1999. "Overconfidence and Excess Entry: An Experimental Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 306-318, March.
  158. Guillermo A. Calvo & Stanislaw Wellisz, 1980. "Technology, Entrepreneurs, and Firm Size," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 95(4), pages 663-677.
  159. Wellington, Alison J., 2006. "Self-employment: the new solution for balancing family and career?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 357-386, June.
  160. Julie Elston & David Audretsch, 2011. "Financing the entrepreneurial decision: an empirical approach using experimental data on risk attitudes," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 209-222, February.
  161. Berkay Özcan, 2011. "Only the lonely? The influence of the spouse on the transition to self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 465-492, November.
  162. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1996. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains: Evidence from the Swedish Lottery," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1515-1526, November.
  163. Thomas Dunn & Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 1996. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment:Evidence from Intergenerational Links," NBER Working Papers 5622, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  164. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:30:y:2016:i:4:p:783-806. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)

or (Christopher F. Baum)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.