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Housing Wealth, Liquidity Constraints and Self-Employment


  • Richard Disney
  • John Gathergood


This paper investigates the existence of liquidity constraints facing entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom. Using a household-level panel data set, entry to selfemployment is shown to be a function of household net worth. We use inheritances and unanticipated movements in house prices as instruments for shocks to liquidity. Results indicate that inheritances are a poor instrument for liquidity constraints because both past and future inheritances predict entry to self-employment. House prices shocks are a more plausible instrument because self-employed households disproportionately re-mortgage, but our results again indicate little evidence of house price shocks unbinding liquidity constraints facing the would-be self-employed.

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  • Richard Disney & John Gathergood, "undated". "Housing Wealth, Liquidity Constraints and Self-Employment," Discussion Papers 08/03, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
  • Handle: RePEc:not:notcfc:08/03

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2006. "Entrepreneurship, Frictions, and Wealth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(5), pages 835-870, October.
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    5. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
    6. Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence from Panel Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 539-565, November.
    7. Bruce D. Meyer, 1990. "Why Are There So Few Black Entrepreneurs?," NBER Working Papers 3537, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
    9. Joseph G. Altonji & Thomas A. Dunn, 2000. "An Intergenerational Model of Wages, Hours, and Earnings," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(2), pages 221-258.
    10. Richard Disney & Sarah Bridges & John Gathergood, "undated". "Housing Wealth and Household Indebtedness: Is there a Household ‘Financial Accelerator’?," Discussion Papers 06/01, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
    11. Andrew Henley, 2005. "Job Creation by the Self-employed: The Roles of Entrepreneurial and Financial Capital," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 175-196, September.
    12. Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, March.
    13. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1996. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains: Evidence from the Swedish Lottery," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1515-1526, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Joanna Tyrowicz & Barbara Liberda & Magdalena Smyk, 2015. "Talent workers as entrepreneurs: a new approach to aspirational self-employment," Working Papers 2015-18, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    2. Darja Reuschke, 2011. "Self-Employment and Geographical Mobility in Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 417, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    3. Bracke, Philippe & Hilber, Christian & Silva, Olmo, 2015. "Mortgage debt and entrepreneurship," Bank of England working papers 560, Bank of England.
    4. Fu, Shihe & Liao, Yu & Zhang, Junfu, 2016. "The effect of housing wealth on labor force participation: Evidence from China," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 59-69.
    5. Schäfer, Dorothea & Talavera, Oleksandr & Weir, Charlie, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, windfall gains and financial constraints: Evidence from Germany," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 2174-2180, September.
    6. Sousa, Ricardo M., 2010. "Consumption, (dis)aggregate wealth, and asset returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 606-622, September.
    7. Philippe Bracke & Christian Hilber & Olmo Silva, 2012. "Homeownerhip and Entrepreneurship," SERC Discussion Papers 0103, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    8. Nadia Simoes & Nuno Crespo & Sandrina B. Moreira, 2016. "Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 783-806, September.
    9. Brown, Jason & Fitzgerald, Timothy & Weber, Jeremy G., 2016. "Asset Ownership, Windfalls, and Income: Evidence from Oil and Gas Royalties," Research Working Paper RWP 16-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    10. Michael S. Dahl & Mirjam van Praag & Peter Thompson, 2014. "Entrepreneurial Couples," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-055/V, Tinbergen Institute.
    11. Jeremy G. Weber & Nigel Key, 2014. "Do Wealth Gains from Land Appreciation Cause Farmers to Expand Acreage or Buy Land?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 96(5), pages 1334-1348.
    12. Richard Disney & John Gathergood, 2013. "House Prices, Wealth Effects and Labour Supply," Discussion Papers 13/02, University of Nottingham, School of Economics.
    13. Frank M. Fossen, 2012. "Gender differences in entrepreneurial choice and risk aversion -- a decomposition based on a microeconometric model," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(14), pages 1795-1812, May.
    14. repec:eee:juecon:v:99:y:2017:i:c:p:120-135 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Philippe Bracke & Christian Hilber & Olmo Silva, 2012. "Homeownerhip and Entrepreneurship," SERC Discussion Papers 0103, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    16. Fossen, Frank M., 2012. "Risk attitudes and private business equity," Discussion Papers 2012/11, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    17. Clark, Ken & Drinkwater, Stephen & Robinson, Catherine, 2015. "Self‐Employment amongst Migrant Groups in England and Wales: New Evidence from Census Microdata," IZA Discussion Papers 9539, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Weber, Jeremy G. & Key, Nigel D., 2013. "Does proprietor wealth influence small business decisions? Land appreciation and farm business borrowing, land ownership, and output," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150408, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    19. Joanna Tyrowicz & Magdalena Smyk, 2017. "Pushed into necessity? Labor market inequality and entrepreneurship of disadvantaged group," GRAPE Working Papers 6, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    20. Ken Clark & Stephen Drinkwater & Catherine Robinson, 2017. "Self-employment amongst migrant groups: new evidence from England and Wales," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(4), pages 1047-1069, April.
    21. Sauer, Robert M. & Wilson, Tanya, 2016. "The rise of female entrepreneurs: New evidence on gender differences in liquidity constraints," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 73-86.
    22. Lofstrom, Magnus & Bates, Timothy & Parker, Simon C., 2014. "Why are some people more likely to become small-businesses owners than others: Entrepreneurship entry and industry-specific barriers," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 232-251.

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    Self-employment; liquidity; windfalls.;


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