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Gender differences in intra-household educational expenditures in Malaysia

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  • Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

Abstract

Prior studies examining the apparent reduction of the gender gap in education in Malaysia have been based on the gross enrolment rates. This study examines whether there are significant gender differentials in intra-household educational expenditures in Malaysia and whether gender differences vary by ethnicity or geographical region by using the Engel curve framework and the Hurdle model. There is little evidence of gender bias in Malaysia. The findings suggest that while there are no significant gender differences in intra-household educational expenditures nationally, these do exist in some regions, for the 5 to 9 and 10 to 14 age groups. Such differences typically occur once children are enrolled in school. There is evidence of a significant pro-female gap for Bumiputera children ages 15 to 19.

Suggested Citation

  • Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu, 2016. "Gender differences in intra-household educational expenditures in Malaysia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 59-73.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:injoed:v:46:y:2016:i:c:p:59-73
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2015.10.007
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    Cited by:

    1. Acar, Elif Öznur & Günalp, Burak & Cilasun, Seyit Mümin, 2016. "An empirical analysis of household education expenditures in Turkey," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 23-35.

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