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An Empirical Analysis of Gender Bias in Education Spending in Paraguay

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  • Thomas Masterson

Abstract

Gender affects household spending in two areas that have been widely studied in the literature. One strand documents that greater female bargaining power within households results in a variety of shifts in household production and consumption. An important source of intrahousehold bargaining power is ownership of assets, especially land. Another strand examines gender bias in spending on children. This paper addresses both strands simultaneously. In it, differences in spending on education are examined empirically, at both the household and the individual level. Results are mixed, though the balance of evidence weighs toward pro-male bias in spending on education at the household level. Results also indicate that the relationship between asset ownership and female bargaining power within the household is contingent on the type of asset.

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  • Thomas Masterson, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of Gender Bias in Education Spending in Paraguay," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_550, Levy Economics Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:lev:wrkpap:wp_550
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-1046, October.
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    3. Anil B. Deolalikar, 1993. "Gender Differences in the Returns to Schooling and in School Enrollment Rates in Indonesia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 899-932.
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    5. Davies, James B & Zhang, Junsen, 1995. "Gender Bias, Investments in Children, and Bequests," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(3), pages 795-818, August.
    6. Mark R. Rosenzweig & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 1988. "Heterogeneity, Intrafamily Distribution, and Child Health," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(4), pages 437-461.
    7. Deolalikar, A.B., 1993. "gender Differences in the Returns to School Enrollment rates in Indonesia," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 93-04, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
    8. Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2005. "Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 409-451, January.
    9. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1982. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Child Survival in Rural India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 803-815, September.
    10. Folbre, Nancy, 1984. "Household Production in the Philippines: A Non-neoclassical Approach," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(2), pages 303-330, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Abdul Malik Iddrisu & Michael Danquah & Alfred Barimah & Williams Ohemeng, 2020. "Gender, age cohort, and household investment in child schooling: New evidence from sub-Saharan Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2020-9, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Michael E. Martell & Leanne Roncolato, 2020. "Share of Household Earnings and Time Use of Women in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Households," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 46(3), pages 414-437, June.
    3. Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu, 2016. "Gender differences in intra-household educational expenditures in Malaysia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 59-73.
    4. Glenn P. Jenkins & Hope Amala Anyabolu & Pejman Bahramian, 2019. "Family decision-making for educational expenditure: new evidence from survey data for Nigeria," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(52), pages 5663-5673, November.
    5. Pierre-Richard Agénor & Baris Alpaslan, 2013. "Child Labor, Intra-Household Bargaining and Economic Growth," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 181, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    6. Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad & Yoshino, Naoyuki & Fukuda, Lisa, 2019. "Gender and Corporate Success: An Empirical Analysis of Gender-Based Corporate Performance on a Sample of Asian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises," ADBI Working Papers 937, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    7. Abdul Malik Iddrisu & Michael Danquah & Alfred Barimah & Williams Ohemeng, 2020. "Gender, age cohort, and household investment in child schooling: New evidence from sub-Saharan Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series wp2020-9, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    8. Santiago Acerenza & Néstor Gandelman, 2017. "Household Education Spending in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from Income and Expenditure Surveys," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 98120, Inter-American Development Bank.
    9. Iddrisu, Abdul Malik & Danquah, Michael & Quartey, Peter & Ohemeng, Williams, 2018. "Gender bias in households’ educational expenditures: Does the stage of schooling matter?," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 10, pages 15-23.

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