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School Participation in Rural India


  • Jean Dreze

    (Delhi School of Economics)

  • Geeta Gandhi Kingdon

    (Oxford University)


This paper presents an analysis of the determinants of school participation in rural north India, based on a recent household survey which includes detailed information on school characteristics. School participation, especially among girls, responds to a wide range of variables, including parental education and motivation, social background, dependency ratios, work opportunities, village development, teacher postings, teacher regularity and mid-day meals. The remarkable lead achieved by the state of Himachal Pradesh is fully accounted for by these variables. School quality matters, but it is not related in a simple way to specific inputs.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean Dreze & Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1999. "School Participation in Rural India," Working papers 69, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:cde:cdewps:69

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hanushek, Eric A, 1995. "Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 227-246, August.
    2. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon & Jeemol Unni, 2001. "Education and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 173-195.
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    4. Kingdom, G.G. & Unni, J., 1998. "Education and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India: An Analysis Using NSS Household Data," Economics Series Working Papers 99201, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    5. Hanushek, Eric A, 1986. "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 1141-1177, September.
    6. Dreze, Jean & Lanjouw, Peter & Sharma, Naresh, 1997. "Credit in rural India: a case study," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6692, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. Anne Case & Angus Deaton, 1998. "School quality and educational outcomes in South Africa," Working Papers 993, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing..
    8. Duraisamy, P., 1992. "Gender, Intrafamily Allocation of Resources and Child Schooling in South India," Papers 667, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    9. Paul Glewwe & Hanan Jacoby, 1994. "Student Achievement and Schooling Choice in Low-Income Countries: Evidence from Ghana," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(3), pages 843-864.
    10. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-338, May.
    11. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575.
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    Cited by:

    1. Eric V. Edmonds & Nina Pavcnik & Petia Topalova, 2010. "Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Indian Tariff Reform," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(4), pages 42-75, October.
    2. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2001. "Child Labor: Theory, Evidence, and Policy," Working Papers 474, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    3. Kamakshya Trivedi, 2006. "Educational human capital and levels of income: Evidence from states in India, 1965 - 92," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(8), pages 1350-1378.
    4. Marshall, Jeffery H., 2011. "School quality signals and attendance in rural Guatemala," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1445-1455.
    5. David K. Evans & Arkadipta Ghosh, 2008. "Prioritizing Educational Investments in Children in the Developing World," Working Papers 587, RAND Corporation.
    6. Vani Borooah & Sriya Iyer, 2005. "Vidya, Veda, and Varna: The influence of religion and caste on education in rural India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 1369-1404.
    7. Vimala Ramachandran & Suman Bhattacharjea & K M Sheshagiri, 2011. "Primary School Teachers: The Twists and Turns of Everyday Practice," Working Papers id:4303, eSocialSciences.

    More about this item


    Household Survey; Education; Gender;

    JEL classification:

    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development


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