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The (Unintended?) Consequences of the Largest Liquidity Injection Ever

Author

Listed:
  • Miguel Faria-e-Castro

    (New York University)

  • Luis Fonseca

    (London Business School)

  • Matteo Crosignani

    (NYU Stern)

Abstract

We analyze some of the potentially unintended consequences of the largest liquidity injection ever conducted by a central bank: the European Central Bank’s three-year Long-Term Refinancing Operations conducted in December 2011 and February 2012. Using an unique dataset on monthly security- and bank-level holdings of government bonds for Portugal, we analyze the impact of this unconventional monetary policy operation on the demand for government debt. We find that: (i) Portuguese banks significantly increased their holdings of domestic government bonds after the announcement of this policy; (ii) This increase in holdings was tilted towards shorter maturities, with banks rebalancing their sovereign debt portfolios towards shorter term bonds. We employ a theoretical framework to argue that domestic banks engaged in a “collateral trade†, which involved the purchase of high yield bonds with maturities shorter than the central bank borrowing in order to mitigate funding liquidity risk. Our model delivers general equilibrium implications that are consistent with the data: the yield curve for the Portuguese sovereign steepens after the announcement, and the timing and characteristics of government bond auctions are consistent with a strategic response by the debt management agency.

Suggested Citation

  • Miguel Faria-e-Castro & Luis Fonseca & Matteo Crosignani, 2016. "The (Unintended?) Consequences of the Largest Liquidity Injection Ever," 2016 Meeting Papers 43, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed016:43
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Corradin, Stefano & Heider, Florian & Hoerova, Marie, 2017. "On collateral: implications for financial stability and monetary policy," Working Paper Series 2107, European Central Bank.
    2. Eidam, Frederik, 2018. "Gap-filling government debt maturity choice," ZEW Discussion Papers 18-025, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    3. Carlo Altavilla & Marco Pagano & Saverio Simonelli, 2017. "Bank Exposures and Sovereign Stress Transmission," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 21(6), pages 2103-2139.
    4. Bergant, Katharina, 2017. "Quantitative Easing and Portfolio Rebalancing: Micro Evidence from Irish Resident Banks," Economic Letters 07/EL/17, Central Bank of Ireland.
    5. Beck, Thorsten & Da-Rocha-Lopes, Samuel & Silva, Andre, 2017. "Sharing the Pain? Credit Supply and Real Effects of Bank Bail-ins," CEPR Discussion Papers 12058, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Ari, Anil, 2016. "Sovereign risk and bank risk-taking," Working Paper Series 1894, European Central Bank.
    7. Luisa Carpinelli & Matteo Crosignani, 2017. "The Effect of Central Bank Liquidity Injections on Bank Credit Supply," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-038, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (US).
    8. Matteo Crosignani, 2015. "Why Are Banks Not Recapitalized During Crises?," Working Papers 203, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    9. José-Luis Peydró & Andrea Polo & Enrico Sette, 2017. "Monetary policy at work: Security and credit application registers evidence," Working Papers 964, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    10. Littke, Helge C. N. & Ossandon Busch, Matias, 2018. "Banks fearing the drought? Liquidity hoarding as a response to idiosyncratic interbank funding dry-ups," IWH Discussion Papers 12/2018, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    11. Acharya, Viral V & Eisert, Tim & Eufinger, Christian & Hirsch, Christian, 2017. "Whatever it takes: The Real Effects of Unconventional Monetary Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 12005, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Carla Soares & Diana Bonfim & Nuno Alves, 2016. "Surviving the perfect storm: the role of the lender of last resort," Working Papers w201617, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    13. Schneider, Michael & Lillo, Fabrizio & Pelizzon, Loriana, 2016. "How has sovereign bond market liquidity changed? An illiquidity spillover analysis," SAFE Working Paper Series 151, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
    14. Acharya, Viral & Pierret, Diane & Steffen, Sascha, 2016. "Lender of last resort versus buyer of last resort: The impact of the European Central Bank actions on the bank-sovereign nexus," ZEW Discussion Papers 16-019, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • H63 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt

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