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The bank lending channel of unconventional monetary policy: The impact of the VLTROs on credit supply in Spain

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  • García-Posada, Miguel
  • Marchetti, Marcos

Abstract

We assess the impact on the credit supply to non-financial corporations of the two very long term refinancing operations (VLTROs) conducted by the Eurosystem in December 2011 and February 2012 for the case of Spain. To do so we use bank–firm level information from a sample of more than one million lending relationships during two years. Our methodology tackles three main identification challenges: (i) how to disentangle credit supply from demand; (ii) the non-random assignment of firms to banks; (iii) the endogeneity of the VLTRO bids, as banks with more deteriorated funding conditions were more likely both to ask for a large amount of funds and to restrain credit supply. Our findings suggest that the VLTROs had a positive moderate-sized effect on the supply of bank credit to firms. We also find that the effect was greater for illiquid banks and that it was driven by credit to SMEs, as there was no impact on loans to large firms. By contrast, strong firm–bank relationships were less sensitive to the positive liquidity shock caused by the VLTROs, which is consistent with the studies that find that relationship lending is a more stable source of credit than transaction lending. Finally, the VLTROs had no impact on either the degree of loan collateralisation or the probability of making loans to new borrowers, while they decreased the probability of renewing old ones, which suggests that those funds were not used for loan “evergreening”.

Suggested Citation

  • García-Posada, Miguel & Marchetti, Marcos, 2016. "The bank lending channel of unconventional monetary policy: The impact of the VLTROs on credit supply in Spain," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 427-441.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:58:y:2016:i:c:p:427-441
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econmod.2016.05.002
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    Cited by:

    1. Matteo Crosignani & Miguel Faria-e-Castro & Luís Fonseca, 2016. "The (unintended?) consequences of the largest liquidity injection ever," ESRB Working Paper Series 31, European Systemic Risk Board.
    2. repec:eee:ecmode:v:71:y:2018:i:c:p:87-98 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eee:ecmode:v:68:y:2018:i:c:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Krishnamurthy, Arvind & Nagel, Stefan & Vissing-Jorgensen, Annette, 2017. "ECB Policies Involving Government Bond Purchases: Impact and Channels," Research Papers repec:ecl:stabus:3578, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    5. C. Cahn & A. Duquerroy & W. Mullins, 2017. "Unconventional Monetary Policy and Bank Lending Relationships," Working papers 659, Banque de France.
    6. Dombret, Andreas R. & Foos, Daniel & Pliszka, Kamil & Schulz, Alexander, 2018. "What are the real effects of financial market liquidity? Evidence on bank lending from the euro area," Discussion Papers 34/2018, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. Óscar Arce & Ricardo Gimeno & Sergio Mayordomo, 2017. "Making room for the needy: the credit-reallocation effects of the ECB’s corporate QE," Working Papers 1743, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    8. Littke, Helge C. N. & Ossandon Busch, Matias, 2018. "Banks fearing the drought? Liquidity hoarding as a response to idiosyncratic interbank funding dry-ups," IWH Discussion Papers 12/2018, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    9. Juan S. Mora-Sanguinetti & Marta Martínez-Matute & Miguel García-Posada, 2017. "Credit, crisis and contract enforcement: evidence from the Spanish loan market," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 361-383, October.
    10. Paludkiewicz, Karol, 2018. "Unconventional monetary policy, bank lending, and security holdings: The yield-induced portfolio rebalancing channel," Discussion Papers 22/2018, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    11. Paludkiewicz, Karol, 2018. "Unconventional Monetary Policy, Bank Lending, and Security Holdings: The Yield-Induced Portfolio Rebalancing Channel," Annual Conference 2018 (Freiburg, Breisgau): Digital Economy 181669, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    12. Bańbura, Marta & Albani, Maria & Ambrocio, Gene & Bursian, Dirk & Buss, Ginters & de Winter, Jasper & Gavura, Miroslav & Giordano, Claire & Júlio, Paulo & Le Roux, Julien & Lozej, Matija & Malthe-Thag, 2018. "Business investment in EU countries," Occasional Paper Series 215, European Central Bank.
    13. repec:eee:ecmode:v:71:y:2018:i:c:p:234-246 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Unconventional monetary policy; VLTRO; Credit supply; Bank lending channel;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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