IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bde/wpaper/1903.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The impact of the ECB’s targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: the role of competition

Author

Listed:
  • Desislava C. Andreeva

    (European Central Bank)

  • Miguel García-Posada

    (Banco de España)

Abstract

We assess the impact of the Eurosystem’s Targeted Long-Term Refinancing Operations (TLTROs) on the lending policies of euro area banks. To guide our empirical research, we build a theoretical model in which banks compete à la Cournot in the credit and deposit markets. According to the model, we distinguish between direct and indirect effects. Direct effects take place because bidding banks expand their loan supply due to the lower marginal costs implied by the TLTROs. Indirect effects on non-bidders operate via changes in the competitive environment in banks’ credit and deposit markets and are a priori ambiguous. We then test these theoretical predictions with a sample of 130 banks from 13 countries and the confidential answers to the ECB’s Bank Lending Survey. Regarding direct effects on bidders, we find an easing impact on margins on loans to relatively safe borrowers, but no impact on credit standards. Regarding indirect effects, there is a positive impact on the loan supply on non-bidders but, contrary to the direct effects, the transmission of the TLTROs takes place through an easing of credit standards, and it is mainly concentrated in banks facing high competitive pressures. We also find evidence of positive funding externalities.

Suggested Citation

  • Desislava C. Andreeva & Miguel García-Posada, 2019. "The impact of the ECB’s targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: the role of competition," Working Papers 1903, Banco de España.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1903
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/PublicacionesSeriadas/DocumentosTrabajo/19/Fich/dt1903e.pdf
    File Function: First version, February 2019
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hiona Balfoussia & Heather D. Gibson, 2016. "Financial conditions and economic activity: the potential impact of the targeted long-term refinancing operations (TLTROs)," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(6), pages 449-456, April.
    2. Lown, Cara & Morgan, Donald P., 2006. "The Credit Cycle and the Business Cycle: New Findings Using the Loan Officer Opinion Survey," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 1575-1597, September.
    3. Sanderson, Eleanor & Windmeijer, Frank, 2016. "A weak instrument F-test in linear IV models with multiple endogenous variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(2), pages 212-221.
    4. Altavilla, Carlo & Boucinha, Miguel & Holton, Sarah & Ongena, Steven, 2018. "Credit supply and demand in unconventional times," Working Paper Series 2202, European Central Bank.
    5. Crosignani, Matteo & Faria-e-Castro, Miguel & Fonseca, Luís, 2020. "The (Unintended?) consequences of the largest liquidity injection ever," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 97-112.
    6. Matteo Benetton & Davide Fantino, 2018. "Competition and the pass-through of unconventional monetary policy: evidence from TLTROs," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1187, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    7. Martina Jasova & Caterina Mendicino & Dominik Supera, 2018. "Rollover Risk and Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from Unconventional Central Bank Liquidity," 2018 Meeting Papers 500, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    8. Marco Casiraghi & Eugenio Gaiotti & Lisa Rodano & Alessandro Secchi, 2016. "ECB Unconventional Monetary Policy and the Italian Economy during the Sovereign Debt Crisis," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(2), pages 269-315, June.
    9. Darracq-Paries, Matthieu & De Santis, Roberto A., 2015. "A non-standard monetary policy shock: The ECB's 3-year LTROs and the shift in credit supply," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1-34.
    10. Joshua D. Angrist & Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 2009. "Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist's Companion," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 8769, April.
    11. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
    12. Luisa Carpinelli & Matteo Crosignani, 2017. "The Effect of Central Bank Liquidity Injections on Bank Credit Supply," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-038, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Matteo Ciccarelli & Angela Maddaloni & Jose Luis Peydro, 2015. "Trusting the Bankers: A New Look at the Credit Channel of Monetary Policy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 18(4), pages 979-1002, October.
    14. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-In-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275.
    15. Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Atif Mian, 2008. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1413-1442, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lucia Esposito & Davide Fantino & Yeji Sung, 2020. "The impact of TLTRO2 on the Italian credit market: some econometric evidence," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1264, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. C. Andreeva, Desislava & García-Posada, Miguel, 2020. "The impact of the ECB’s targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: the role of competition," Working Paper Series 2364, European Central Bank.
    2. Andreeva, Desislava C. & García-Posada, Miguel, 2021. "The impact of the ECB's targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: The role of competition," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    3. Albertazzi, Ugo & Barbiero, Francesca & Marqués-Ibáñez, David & Popov, Alexander & Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza & Vlassopoulos, Thomas, 2020. "Monetary policy and bank stability: the analytical toolbox reviewed," Working Paper Series 2377, European Central Bank.
    4. António Afonso & Joana Sousa‐Leite, 2020. "The transmission of unconventional monetary policy to bank credit supply: Evidence from the TLTRO," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 88(S1), pages 151-171, September.
    5. Joost Bats & Tom Hudepohl, 2019. "Impact of targeted credit easing by the ECB: Bank-level evidence," DNB Working Papers 631, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    6. Bednarek, Peter & Dinger, Valeriya & Kaat, Daniel Marcel te & Westernhagen, Natalja von, 2021. "To whom do banks channel central bank funds?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    7. García-Posada, Miguel & Marchetti, Marcos, 2016. "The bank lending channel of unconventional monetary policy: The impact of the VLTROs on credit supply in Spain," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 427-441.
    8. Saadi, Vahid, 2016. "Mortgage supply and the US housing boom: The role of the community reinvestment act," IWH Discussion Papers 32/2016, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    9. Nikolay Hristov & Oliver Hülsewig & Johann Scharler, 2020. "Unconventional Monetary Policy Shocks in the Euro Area and the Sovereign-Bank Nexus," CESifo Working Paper Series 8178, CESifo.
    10. Laine, Olli-Matti, 2019. "The effect of TLTRO-II on bank lending," Research Discussion Papers 7/2019, Bank of Finland.
    11. Saadi, Vahid, 2019. "Mortgage supply and the US housing boom: The role of the Community Reinvestment Act," SAFE Working Paper Series 155, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE.
    12. Lucia Esposito & Davide Fantino & Yeji Sung, 2020. "The impact of TLTRO2 on the Italian credit market: some econometric evidence," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1264, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    13. Diana Bonfim & Luísa Farinha & Sónia Félix, 2019. "Credit and the economy: lessons from a decade of research at Banco de Portugal," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles and Banco de Portugal Economic Studies, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    14. Leo de Haan & Sarah Holton & Jan Willem van den End, 2021. "The impact of central bank liquidity support on banks’ sovereign exposures," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(15), pages 1788-1806, March.
    15. Óscar Arce & Miguel García-Posada & Sergio Mayordomo & Steven Ongena, 2018. "Adapting lending policies in a “negative-for-long” scenario (Updated October 2020)," Working Papers 1832, Banco de España, revised Oct 2020.
    16. Degryse, Hans & De Jonghe, Olivier & Jakovljević, Sanja & Mulier, Klaas & Schepens, Glenn, 2019. "Identifying credit supply shocks with bank-firm data: Methods and applications," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 40(C).
    17. Andrea Orame, 2020. "The role of bank supply in the Italian credit market: evidence from a new regional survey," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1279, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    18. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Elias Papaioannou & José-Luis Peydró, 2013. "Financial Regulation, Financial Globalization, and the Synchronization of Economic Activity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(3), pages 1179-1228, June.
    19. Smolyansky, Michael, 2019. "Policy externalities and banking integration," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 132(3), pages 118-139.
    20. Ashesh Rambachan & Jonathan Roth, 2020. "Design-Based Uncertainty for Quasi-Experiments," Papers 2008.00602, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2020.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    unconventional monetary policy; TLTROs; lending policies; competition;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1903. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bdegves.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: María Beiro. Electronic Dissemination of Information Unit. Research Department. Banco de España (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bdegves.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.