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The impact of the ECB’s targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: the role of competition

Author

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  • Desislava C. Andreeva

    (European Central Bank)

  • Miguel García-Posada

    (Banco de España)

Abstract

We assess the impact of the Eurosystem’s Targeted Long-Term Refinancing Operations (TLTROs) on the lending policies of euro area banks. To guide our empirical research, we build a theoretical model in which banks compete à la Cournot in the credit and deposit markets. According to the model, we distinguish between direct and indirect effects. Direct effects take place because bidding banks expand their loan supply due to the lower marginal costs implied by the TLTROs. Indirect effects on non-bidders operate via changes in the competitive environment in banks’ credit and deposit markets and are a priori ambiguous. We then test these theoretical predictions with a sample of 130 banks from 13 countries and the confidential answers to the ECB’s Bank Lending Survey. Regarding direct effects on bidders, we find an easing impact on margins on loans to relatively safe borrowers, but no impact on credit standards. Regarding indirect effects, there is a positive impact on the loan supply on non-bidders but, contrary to the direct effects, the transmission of the TLTROs takes place through an easing of credit standards, and it is mainly concentrated in banks facing high competitive pressures. We also find evidence of positive funding externalities.

Suggested Citation

  • Desislava C. Andreeva & Miguel García-Posada, 2019. "The impact of the ECB’s targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: the role of competition," Working Papers 1903, Banco de España.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:1903
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    Cited by:

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    3. Li, Xiao-Lin & Xie, Pinyi & Ding, Hui & Si, Deng-Kui, 2023. "Central bank lending facility and investment efficiency of non-SOEs: evidence from China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 126(C).
    4. Alves, Nuno & Bonfim, Diana & Soares, Carla, 2021. "Surviving the perfect storm: The role of the lender of last resort☆," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    5. Laine, Olli-Matti, 2022. "Evidence about the transmission of monetary policy," Bank of Finland Scientific Monographs, Bank of Finland, volume 0, number e53.
    6. Eli Agba & Hamza Bennani & Jean-Yves Gnabo, 2022. "Assessing the sources of heterogeneity in eurozone response to unconventional monetary policy," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(48), pages 5549-5574, October.
    7. Dwyer, Gerald P. & Gilevska, Biljana & Nieto, Maria J. & Samartín, Margarita, 2023. "The effects of the ECB’s unconventional monetary policies from 2011 to 2018 on banking assets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 87(C).
    8. Orame, Andrea & Ramcharan, Rodney & Robatto, Roberto, 2023. "Quantitative easing, accounting and prudential frameworks, and bank lending," ESRB Working Paper Series 144, European Systemic Risk Board.
    9. Emilie Da Silva & Vincent Grossmann-Wirth & Benoit Nguyen & Miklos Vari, 2021. "Paying Banks to Lend? Evidence from the Eurosystem's TLTRO and the Euro Area Credit Registry," Working papers 848, Banque de France.
    10. Jung, Alexander, 2023. "Are monetary policy shocks causal to bank health? Evidence from the euro area," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    11. Claudia Kwapil & Kilian Rieder, 2021. "The effects of the monetary policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic: preliminary evidence from a pilot study using Austrian bank-level data," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q4/20-Q1/, pages 131-152.
    12. Bednarek, Peter & Dinger, Valeriya & Kaat, Daniel Marcel te & Westernhagen, Natalja von, 2021. "To whom do banks channel central bank funds?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    13. Lucia Esposito & Davide Fantino & Yeji Sung, 2020. "The impact of TLTRO2 on the Italian credit market: some econometric evidence," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1264, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    14. Fegatelli, Paolo, 2022. "A central bank digital currency in a heterogeneous monetary union: Managing the effects on the bank lending channel," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).
    15. Harasztosi, Péter & Maurin, Laurent & Pál, Rozália & Revoltella, Debora & van der Wielen, Wouter, 2022. "Firm-level policy support during the crisis: So far, so good?," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 30-48.
    16. Florian B¨oser & Chiara Colesanti Senni, 2021. "CAROs: Climate Risk-Adjusted Refinancing Operations," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 21/354, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    17. Altavilla, Carlo & Lemke, Wolfgang & Linzert, Tobias & Tapking, Jens & von Landesberger, Julian, 2021. "Assessing the efficacy, efficiency and potential side effects of the ECB’s monetary policy instruments since 2014," Occasional Paper Series 278, European Central Bank.
    18. Perdichizzi, Salvatore & Duqi, Andi & Molyneux, Philip & Tamimi, Hussein Al, 2023. "Does unconventional monetary policy boost local economic development? The case of TLTROs and Italy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 148(C).
    19. Gocheva, Viktoriya & Mudde, Yvo & Tapking, Jens, 2022. "Liquidity coverage ratios and monetary policy credit in the time of Corona," Working Paper Series 2668, European Central Bank.
    20. Nelimarkka, Jaakko & Laine, Olli-Matti, 2021. "The effects of the ECB's pandemic-related monetary policy measures," BoF Economics Review 4/2021, Bank of Finland.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    unconventional monetary policy; TLTROs; lending policies; competition;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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