IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ecb/ecbwps/20182202.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Credit supply and demand in unconventional times

Author

Listed:
  • Altavilla, Carlo
  • Boucinha, Miguel
  • Holton, Sarah
  • Ongena, Steven

Abstract

Do borrowers demand less credit from banks with weak balance sheet positions? To answer this question we use novel bank-specific survey data matched with confidential balance sheet information on a large set of euro area banks. We find that, following a conventional monetary policy shock, bank balance sheet strength influences not only credit supply but also credit demand. The resilience of lenders plays an important role for firms when selecting whom to borrow from. We also assess the impact on credit origination of unconventional monetary policies using survey responses on the exposure of individual banks to quantitative easing and negative interest rate policies. We find that both policies do stimulate loan supply even after fully controlling for bank-specific demand, borrower quality, and balance sheet strength. JEL Classification: E51, G21

Suggested Citation

  • Altavilla, Carlo & Boucinha, Miguel & Holton, Sarah & Ongena, Steven, 2018. "Credit supply and demand in unconventional times," Working Paper Series 2202, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20182202
    Note: 2279334
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.ecb.europa.eu//pub/pdf/scpwps/ecb.wp2202.en.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hans Degryse & Steven Ongena, 2005. "Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 231-266, February.
    2. Óscar Arce & Miguel García-Posada & Sergio Mayordomo & Steven Ongena, 2018. "Adapting lending policies in a “negative-for-long” scenario (Updated October 2020)," Working Papers 1832, Banco de España, revised Oct 2020.
    3. Carlo Altavilla & Domenico Giannone & Michele Lenza, 2016. "The Financial and Macroeconomic Effects of the OMT Announcements," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(3), pages 29-57, September.
    4. Lown, Cara & Morgan, Donald P., 2006. "The Credit Cycle and the Business Cycle: New Findings Using the Loan Officer Opinion Survey," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 1575-1597, September.
    5. Raymond E. Owens & Stacey L. Schreft, 1995. "Identifying Credit Crunches," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 13(2), pages 63-76, April.
    6. Cole, Rebel A. & Goldberg, Lawrence G. & White, Lawrence J., 2004. "Cookie Cutter vs. Character: The Micro Structure of Small Business Lending by Large and Small Banks," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(2), pages 227-251, June.
    7. Kishan, Ruby P & Opiela, Timothy P, 2000. "Bank Size, Bank Capital, and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 121-141, February.
    8. Gambacorta, Leonardo & Mistrulli, Paolo Emilio, 2004. "Does bank capital affect lending behavior?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 436-457, October.
    9. Degryse, Hans & De Jonghe, Olivier & Jakovljević, Sanja & Mulier, Klaas & Schepens, Glenn, 2019. "Identifying credit supply shocks with bank-firm data: Methods and applications," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 40(C).
    10. Ciccarelli, Matteo & Maddaloni, Angela & Peydró, José-Luis, 2013. "Heterogeneous transmission mechanism: monetary policy and financial fragility in the euro area," Working Paper Series 1527, European Central Bank.
    11. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    12. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    13. Albertazzi, Ugo & Becker, Bo & Boucinha, Miguel, 2018. "Portfolio rebalancing and the transmission of large-scale asset programmes: evidence from the euro area," Working Paper Series 2125, European Central Bank.
    14. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    15. Nucera, Federico & Lucas, André & Schaumburg, Julia & Schwaab, Bernd, 2017. "Do negative interest rates make banks less safe?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 112-115.
    16. Altavilla, Carlo & Pariès, Matthieu Darracq & Nicoletti, Giulio, 2019. "Loan supply, credit markets and the euro area financial crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).
    17. S. Demiralp & J. Eisenschmidt & T. Vlassopoulos, 2017. "Negative interest rates, excess liquidity and bank business models: Banks’ reaction to unconventional monetary policy in the euro area," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1708, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    18. Bowman, David & Cai, Fang & Davies, Sally & Kamin, Steven, 2015. "Quantitative easing and bank lending: Evidence from Japan," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 15-30.
    19. Schepens, Glenn, 2018. "Bank lending under negative policy rates," Research Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 43.
    20. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 32-53, February.
    21. Alexander Popov & Neeltje Van Horen, 2015. "Exporting Sovereign Stress: Evidence from Syndicated Bank Lending during the Euro Area Sovereign Debt Crisis," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 19(5), pages 1825-1866.
    22. Jiménez, Gabriel & Ongena, Steven & Peydró, José-Luis & Saurina, Jesús, 2012. "Credit Supply and Monetary Policy: Identifying the Bank Balance-Sheet Channel with Loan Applications," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 2301-2326.
    23. Michael Schwert, 2018. "Bank Capital and Lending Relationships," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 73(2), pages 787-830, April.
    24. Del Giovane, Paolo & Eramo, Ginette & Nobili, Andrea, 2011. "Disentangling demand and supply in credit developments: A survey-based analysis for Italy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2719-2732, October.
    25. Blaes, Barno, 2011. "Bank-related loan supply factors during the crisis: An analysis based on the German bank lending survey," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2011,31, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    26. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
    27. Joyce, Michael & Spaltro, Marco, 2014. "Quantitative easing and bank lending: a panel data approach," Bank of England working papers 504, Bank of England.
    28. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. "Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ryan, Ellen & Whelan, Karl, 2021. "Quantitative easing and the hot potato effect: Evidence from euro area banks," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    2. Jung, Alexander, 2020. "An empirical analysis of loan supply and demand in the euro area," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 187-201.
    3. Corbisiero, Giuseppe & Faccia, Donata, 2019. "Firms' or banks' weakness? Access to finance since the European sovereign debt crisis," Research Technical Papers 12/RT/19, Central Bank of Ireland.
    4. Mary Everett & Jakob de Haan & David‐Jan Jansen & Peter McQuade & Anna Samarina, 2021. "Mortgage lending, monetary policy, and prudential measures in small euro‐area economies: Evidence from Ireland and the Netherlands," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 117-143, February.
    5. Albertazzi, Ugo & Barbiero, Francesca & Marqués-Ibáñez, David & Popov, Alexander & Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza & Vlassopoulos, Thomas, 2020. "Monetary policy and bank stability: the analytical toolbox reviewed," Working Paper Series 2377, European Central Bank.
    6. Blaes, Barno A. & Kraaz, Björn & Offermanns, Christian J., 2019. "The effects of the eurosystem's APP on euro area bank lending: Letting different data speak," Discussion Papers 26/2019, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. C. Andreeva, Desislava & García-Posada, Miguel, 2020. "The impact of the ECB’s targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: the role of competition," Working Paper Series 2364, European Central Bank.
    8. Raphael Auer & Steven Ongena, 2016. "The countercyclical capital buffer and the composition of bank lending," BIS Working Papers 593, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Heckmann, Lotta & Moertel, Julia, 2020. "Hampered interest rate pass-through: A supply side story?," Discussion Papers 59/2020, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    10. Everett, Mary & McQuade, Peter & O’Grady, Michael, 2020. "Bank business models as a driver of cross-border activities," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 108(C).
    11. Carlo Altavilla & Miguel Boucinha & Lorenzo Burlon, 2020. "The Economic Consequences of Negative Interest Rates," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 21(01), pages 13-17, April.
    12. Holm-Hadulla, Fédéric & Musso, Alberto & Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego & Vlassopoulos, Thomas, 2021. "Evolution of the ECB’s analytical framework," Occasional Paper Series 277, European Central Bank.
    13. Altavilla, Carlo & Burlon, Lorenzo & Giannetti, Mariassunta & Holton, Sarah, 2019. "Is There a Zero Lower Bound? The Effects of Negative Policy Rates on Banks and Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 14050, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Altavilla, Carlo & C. Andreeva, Desislava & Boucinha, Miguel & Holton, Sarah, 2019. "Monetary policy, credit institutions and the bank lending channel in the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 222, European Central Bank.
    15. Desislava C. Andreeva & Miguel García-Posada, 2019. "The impact of the ECB’s targeted long-term refinancing operations on banks’ lending policies: the role of competition," Working Papers 1903, Banco de España.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bersch, Johannes & Degryse, Hans & Kick, Thomas & Stein, Ingrid, 2020. "The real effects of bank distress: Evidence from bank bailouts in Germany," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    2. Albertazzi, Ugo & Barbiero, Francesca & Marqués-Ibáñez, David & Popov, Alexander & Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza & Vlassopoulos, Thomas, 2020. "Monetary policy and bank stability: the analytical toolbox reviewed," Working Paper Series 2377, European Central Bank.
    3. Andrea Orame, 2020. "The role of bank supply in the Italian credit market: evidence from a new regional survey," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1279, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    4. Acharya, Viral V. & Imbierowicz, Björn & Steffen, Sascha & Teichmann, Daniel, 2020. "Does the lack of financial stability impair the transmission of monetary policy?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(2), pages 342-365.
    5. Ciccarelli, Matteo & Maddaloni, Angela & Peydró, José-Luis, 2015. "Trusting the bankers: A new look at the credit channel of monetary policy," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 979-1002.
    6. Alexander Popov, 2016. "Monetary Policy, Bank Capital, and Credit Supply: A Role for Discouraged and Informally Rejected Firms," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(1), pages 95-141, March.
    7. Óscar Arce & Miguel García-Posada & Sergio Mayordomo & Steven Ongena, 2018. "Adapting lending policies in a “negative-for-long” scenario (Updated October 2020)," Working Papers 1832, Banco de España, revised Oct 2020.
    8. Lopez, Jose A. & Rose, Andrew K. & Spiegel, Mark M., 2020. "Why have negative nominal interest rates had such a small effect on bank performance? Cross country evidence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 124(C).
    9. van Holle, Frederiek, 2017. "Essays in empirical finance and monetary policy," Other publications TiSEM 30d11a4b-7bc9-4c81-ad24-5, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    10. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2018. "Frontiers of macrofinancial linkages," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 95, December.
    11. Jiménez, Gabriel & Ongena, Steven & Peydró, José-Luis & Saurina, Jesús, 2010. "Credit supply - Identifying balance-sheet channels with loan applications and granted loans," Working Paper Series 1179, European Central Bank.
    12. Patrick Bolton & Xavier Freixas & Leonardo Gambacorta & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2016. "Relationship and Transaction Lending in a Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(10), pages 2643-2676.
    13. Cerqueiro, Geraldo & Degryse, Hans & Ongena, Steven, 2011. "Rules versus discretion in loan rate setting," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 503-529, October.
    14. Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory F. & Yamori, Nobuyoshi, 2012. "Loan officers and relationship lending to SMEs," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 97-122.
    15. Buchholz, Manuel & Schmidt, Kirsten & Tonzer, Lena, 2020. "Do conventional monetary policy instruments matter in unconventional times?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 118(C).
    16. Pietro Alessandrini & Andrea Filippo Presbitero & Alberto Zazzaro, 2008. "Global Banking and Local Markets," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 4, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    17. Masagus M. Ridhwan & Henri L.F. de Groot & Piet Rietveld & Peter Nijkamp, 2012. "Regional Interest Rate Variations: Evidence from the Indonesian Credit Markets," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-073/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    18. Gomez, Matthieu & Landier, Augustin & Sraer, David & Thesmar, David, 2021. "Banks’ exposure to interest rate risk and the transmission of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 543-570.
    19. Beck, Thorsten & Ongena, Steven & Şendeniz-Yüncü, İlkay, 2019. "Keep walking? Geographical proximity, religion, and relationship banking," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 49-68.
    20. de Haas, Ralph & Lu, Liping & Ongena, S.R.G., 2018. "Clear and Close Competitors? : On the Causes and Consequences of Bilateral Competition between Banks," Other publications TiSEM e9f86045-13c5-49d9-85df-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    balance sheet strength; bank lending survey; credit demand and supply; non-standard monetary policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20182202. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/emieude.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Official Publications (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/emieude.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.