IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Small business credit availability and relationship lending: the importance of bank organizational structure

  • Allen N. Berger
  • Gregory F. Udell

This paper models the inner workings of relationship lending, the implications for bank organizational structure, and the effects of shocks to the economic environment on the availability of relationship credit to small businesses. Relationship lending depends on the accumulation over time by the loan officer of "soft" information. Because the loan officer is the repository of this soft information, agency problems are created throughout the organization that are best resolved by structuring the bank as a small, closely-held organization with few managerial layers. The shocks analyzed include technological innovations, regulatory regime shifts, banking industry consolidation, and monetary policy shocks.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2001/200136/200136abs.html
Download Restriction: no

File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2001/200136/200136pap.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2001-36.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 2001
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2001-36
Contact details of provider: Postal: 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551
Web page: http://www.federalreserve.gov/

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Web: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/fedsorder.html

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph M. Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trips It's Been," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 55-218.
  2. Robert Townsend, 1979. "Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification," Staff Report 45, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  3. Loretta J. Mester & Leonard I. Nakamura & Micheline Renault, 2001. "Checking accounts and bank monitoring," Working Papers 01-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  4. Berger, A.N. & Goldberg, L.G. & White, L.J., 2001. "The Effects of Dynamic Change in Bank Competition on the Supply of Small Business Credit," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 01-07, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  5. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: the roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Hans Degryse & Partick Van cayseele, 1998. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers ces9816, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
  7. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1988. "Collateral, loan quality, and bank risk," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 51, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1995. "Universal banking and the future of small business lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Robert DeYoung & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1997. "Youth, Adolescence, and Maturity of Banks: Credit Availability to Small Business in an Era of Banking Consolidation," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-025, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  10. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
  11. Jonathan A. Scott & William C. Dunkelber, 1999. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: a small firm perspective," Proceedings 760, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  12. Greenbaum, Stuart I. & Kanatas, George & Venezia, Itzhak, 1989. "Equilibrium loan pricing under the bank-client relationship," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 221-235, May.
  13. Joe Peek & Eric Rosengren, 1993. "Bank regulation and the credit crunch," Working Papers 93-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  14. Allen N. Berger & Anthony Saunders & Joseph M. Scalise & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-007, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  15. Allen N. Berger & Robert De Young, 2001. "The effects of geographic expansion on bank efficiency," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-03, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  16. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  17. Steven Ongena & David C. Smith, 1997. "Empirical Evidence on the Duration of Bank Relationships," Finance 9703002, EconWPA.
  18. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
  19. Udell, Gregory F., 1989. "Loan quality, commercial loan review and loan officer contracting," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 367-382, July.
  20. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
  21. Brian Uzzi & James J. Gillespie, 1999. "What small firms get capital and what cost: notes on the role of social capital and banking networks," Proceedings 778, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  22. Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein, 1997. "The role of banks in monetary policy: a survey with implications for the European Monetary Union," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Sep, pages 2-18.
  23. Dietmar Harhoff & Timm Körting, 1998. "Lending Relationships in Germany: Empirical Results from Survey Data," CIG Working Papers FS IV 98-06, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  24. Avery, Robert B. & Berger, Allen N., 1991. "Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 847-874, September.
  25. Mitchell Berlin & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "On the Profitability and Cost of Relationship Lending," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-43, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  26. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1997. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: it's not just bank size that matters," Working Papers 97-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  27. Nachman, David C & Noe, Thomas H, 1994. "Optimal Design of Securities under Asymmetric Information," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 1-44.
  28. Angelini, P. & Di Salvo, R. & Ferri, G., 1998. "Availability and cost of credit for small businesses: Customer relationships and credit cooperatives," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 925-954, August.
  29. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1990. "Some evidence on the empirical significance of credit rationing," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 105, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  30. Jaffee, Dwight & Stiglitz, Joseph, 1990. "Credit rationing," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 16, pages 837-888 Elsevier.
  31. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-43, May.
  32. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1993. "Did risk-based capital allocate bank credit and cause a credit crunch in the U.S.?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 93-41, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  33. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  34. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V, 1994. "Moral Hazard and Secured Lending in an Infinitely Repeated Credit Market Game," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(4), pages 899-920, November.
  35. Anjan V. Thakor & Gregory F. Udell, 2004. "An Economic Rationale for the Pricing Structure of Bank Loan Commitments," Finance 0411053, EconWPA.
  36. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
  37. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1994. "Bank Real Estate Lending and the New England Capital Crunch," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(1), pages 33-58.
  38. Elsas, Ralf & Krahnen, Jan Pieter, 1998. "Is relationship lending special? Evidence from credit-file data in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(10-11), pages 1283-1316, October.
  39. Robert E. Carpenter & Bruce C. Petersen, 2002. "Capital Market Imperfections, High-Tech Investment, and New Equity Financing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages F54-F72, February.
  40. Frame, W Scott & Srinivasan, Aruna & Woosley, Lynn, 2001. "The Effect of Credit Scoring on Small-Business Lending," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 813-25, August.
  41. Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1991. "Monetary Policy, Business Cycles and the Behavior of Small Manufacturing Firms," NBER Working Papers 3892, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  42. Blackwell, David W & Winters, Drew B, 1997. "Banking Relationships and the Effect of Monitoring on Loan Pricing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 275-89, Summer.
  43. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
  44. Rebel A. Cole & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1999. "Cookie-cutter versus character: the micro structure of small business lending by large and small banks," Proceedings 777, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  45. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  46. George W. Haynes & Charles Ou & Robert Berney, 1999. "Small business borrowing from large and small banks," Proceedings 776, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  47. Ferri, Giovanni & Messori, Marcello, 2000. "Bank-firm relationships and allocative efficiency in Northeastern and Central Italy and in the South," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 1067-1095, June.
  48. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
  49. Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti & Giorgio Gobbi, 2001. "The Effects of Bank Consolidation and Market Entry on Small Business Lending," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 404, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  50. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung & Hesna Genay & Gregory F. Udell, 1999. "Globalization of financial institutions: evidence from cross-border banking performance," Working Paper Series WP-99-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  51. Cole, Rebel & Walraven, Nick, 1998. "Banking consolidation and the availability of credit to small businesses," MPRA Paper 4716, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  52. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
  53. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1991. "Securitization, risk, and the liquidity problem in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 181, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  54. Keeton, William R., 1995. "Multi-Office Bank Lending To Small Businesses: Some New Evidence," Proceedings: 1995 Regional Committee NC-207, October 16-17, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri 131493, Regional Research Committee NC-1014: Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition.
  55. Robert Hauswald & Robert Marquez, 2000. "Relationship banking, loan specialization and competition," Proceedings 695, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  56. William R. Keeton, 1995. "Multi-office bank lending to small businesses: some new evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 45-57.
  57. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2001-36. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kris Vajs)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.