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The Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending

  • Allen N. Berger
  • Anthony Saunders
  • Joseph M. Scalise
  • Gregory F. Udell

We examine the effects of bank M&As on small business lending using data on over 6,000 recent U.S. bank M&As. We are the first to decompose the impact of M&As into static effects from simply melding the antecedent institutions, and dynamic effects associated with post-M&A refocusing of the consolidated institution. We are also the first to estimate the dynamic reactions of other local banks. We find that the static effects of consolidation reduce small business lending, but are mostly offset by the reactions of other banks, and in some cases also by refocusing efforts of the consolidating institutions themselves.

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Paper provided by New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business- in its series New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires with number 97-1.

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Date of creation: Mar 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fth:nystfi:97-1
Contact details of provider: Postal: U.S.A.; New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics . 44 West 4th Street. New York, New York 10012-1126
Phone: (212) 998-0100
Web page: http://w4.stern.nyu.edu/finance/

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  1. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Diana Hancock & James A. Wilcox, 1994. "Bank Capital and the Credit Crunch: The Roles of Risk-Weighted and Unweighted Capital Regulations," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(1), pages 59-94.
  3. Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "The effects of megamergers on efficiency and prices: evidence from a bank profit function," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-9, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Joseph P. Hughes & Choon-Geol Moon, 1997. "Efficient Banking Under Interstate Branching," Departmental Working Papers 199609, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  5. Jith Jayaratne & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "Entry restrictions, industry evolution and dynamic efficiency: evidence from commercial banking," Research Paper 9630, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  6. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph M. Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trips It's Been," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 55-218.
  7. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 1998. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 799-819, August.
  8. James S. Ang, 1992. "On the Theory of Finance for Privately Held Firms," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 1(3), pages 185-203 , Spring.
  9. Philip E. Strahan & James Weston, 1996. "Small business lending and bank consolidation: is there cause for concern?," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 2(Mar).
  10. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
  11. William R. Keeton, 1996. "Do bank mergers reduce lending to businesses and farmers? New evidence from Tenth District states," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 63-75.
  12. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1995. "Universal banking and the future of small business lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  13. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Megamergers in banking and the use of cost efficiency as an antitrust defense," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 203, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1995. "Small business credit availability: how important is size of lender?," Working Papers 95-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  15. William R. Keeton, 1995. "Multi-office bank lending to small businesses: some new evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 45-57.
  16. Benston, George J & Hunter, William C & Wall, Larry D, 1995. "Motivations for Bank Mergers and Acquisitions: Enhancing the Deposit Insurance Put Option versus Earnings Diversification," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(3), pages 777-88, August.
  17. David W. Blackwell & Drew B. Winters, 1997. "Banking Relationships And The Effect Of Monitoring On Loan Pricing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 275-289, 06.
  18. Alden L. Toevs, 1992. "Under what circumstances do bank mergers improve efficiency?," Proceedings 378, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  19. Pilloff, Steven J, 1996. "Performance Changes and Shareholder Wealth Creation Associated with Mergers of Publicly Traded Banking Institutions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 294-310, August.
  20. Keeton, William R., 1995. "Multi-Office Bank Lending To Small Businesses: Some New Evidence," Proceedings: 1995 Regional Committee NC-207, October 16-17, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri 131493, Regional Research Committee NC-1014: Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition.
  21. John, Kose & Ofek, Eli, 1995. "Asset sales and increase in focus," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 105-126, January.
  22. Allen N. Berger & Timothy H. Hannan, 1993. "Using efficiency measures to distinguish among alternative explanations of the structure-performance relationship in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 93-18, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  23. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1994. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," NBER Working Papers 4921, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  24. Hannan, Timothy H., 1991. "Bank commercial loan markets and the role of market structure: evidence from surveys of commercial lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 133-149, February.
  25. Blackwell, David W & Winters, Drew B, 1997. "Banking Relationships and the Effect of Monitoring on Loan Pricing," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 275-89, Summer.
  26. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  27. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
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