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Banking consolidation and the availability of credit to small businesses

  • Cole, Rebel
  • Walraven, Nick

In this study, we use firm-level data from the 1993 National Survey of Small Business Finances to test the hypothesis that banking consolidation has reduced the availability of credit to small businesses. We find that banks in markets where mergers have occurred are more likely than other banks to deny credit to small business loan applicants. However, this relationship disappears after we control for characteristics of the small business firm and its principal owner, the economic environment of the market where the firm is located, and the financial condition of the prospective lender. Moreover, we find that one set of banks, those in the process of acquiring other banks, are less likely to deny credit to small businesses. These results suggest that consolidation in the banking industry may have enhanced rather than restricted the availability of credit to small businesses. However, the data reflect credit availability during 1991-94, and may not be representative of subsequent credit conditions. Nor does the analysis rule out possible changes in the terms of credit available to small businesses.

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File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/4716/1/MPRA_paper_4716.pdf
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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 4716.

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Date of creation: 31 Mar 1998
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4716
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  1. Allen N. Berger & Anthony Saunders & Joseph M. Scalise & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-007, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  2. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1997. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: it's not just bank size that matters," Working Papers 97-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  3. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  4. Gregory E. Elliehausen & John D. Wolken, 1990. "Banking markets and the use of financial services by small and medium- sized businesses," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Oct, pages 801-817.
  5. Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tehranian, Hassan, 1992. "Changes in corporate performance associated with bank acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-234, April.
  6. Nicholas Walraven, 1997. "Small business lending by banks involved in mergers," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-25, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Alicia H. Munnell, 1992. "Mortgage lending in Boston: interpreting HMDA data," Working Papers 92-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  8. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
  9. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
  10. Houston, Joel F. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 1994. "The overall gains from large bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1155-1176, December.
  11. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
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