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Banking consolidation and the availability of credit to small businesses

Author

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  • Cole, Rebel
  • Walraven, Nick

Abstract

In this study, we use firm-level data from the 1993 National Survey of Small Business Finances to test the hypothesis that banking consolidation has reduced the availability of credit to small businesses. We find that banks in markets where mergers have occurred are more likely than other banks to deny credit to small business loan applicants. However, this relationship disappears after we control for characteristics of the small business firm and its principal owner, the economic environment of the market where the firm is located, and the financial condition of the prospective lender. Moreover, we find that one set of banks, those in the process of acquiring other banks, are less likely to deny credit to small businesses. These results suggest that consolidation in the banking industry may have enhanced rather than restricted the availability of credit to small businesses. However, the data reflect credit availability during 1991-94, and may not be representative of subsequent credit conditions. Nor does the analysis rule out possible changes in the terms of credit available to small businesses.

Suggested Citation

  • Cole, Rebel & Walraven, Nick, 1998. "Banking consolidation and the availability of credit to small businesses," MPRA Paper 4716, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4716
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/4716/1/MPRA_paper_4716.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nicholas Walraven, 1997. "Small business lending by banks involved in mergers," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-25, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. Gregory E. Elliehausen & John D. Wolken, 1990. "Banking markets and the use of financial services by small and medium- sized businesses," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Oct, pages 801-817.
    3. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 1998. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 799-819, August.
    4. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
    5. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-381, July.
    6. Munnell, Alicia H. & Geoffrey M. B. Tootell & Lynn E. Browne & James McEneaney, 1996. "Mortgage Lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 25-53, March.
    7. Berger, Allen N. & Saunders, Anthony & Scalise, Joseph M. & Udell, Gregory F., 1998. "The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on small business lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 187-229, November.
    8. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
    9. Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tehranian, Hassan, 1992. "Changes in corporate performance associated with bank acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-234, April.
    10. Houston, Joel F. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 1994. "The overall gains from large bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1155-1176, December.
    11. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
    2. Alessandrini, Pietro & Calcagnini, Giorgio & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2008. "Asset restructuring strategies in bank acquisitions: Does distance between dealing partners matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 699-713, May.
    3. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 32-53, February.
    4. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    5. Petersen, Mitchell A., 1999. "Comment on Jayaratne and Wolken," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 459-462, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    acquisition; bank; bank merger; credit; merger; relationship; small business; SSBF; takeover;

    JEL classification:

    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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