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Consolidation, technology, and the changing structure of banks' small business lending

  • David P. Ely
  • Kenneth J. Robinson

The U.S. banking industry continues to consolidate, with large, complex banking organizations becoming more important. Traditionally, these institutions have not emphasized small business lending. On the other hand, technological advances, particularly credit scoring models, make it easier for banks to extend small business credit. To see what effects these influences might have generated on small business lending, David Ely and Kenneth Robinson explore the small business lending patterns at U.S. banks from 1994 through 1999. They find that larger banks are increasing their market share, most noticeably in the smallest segment of the small business loan market. The authors also present evidence that the size of the average small business loan has declined, especially at larger organizations, and that the gap in lending focus on the smallest small business loans has narrowed between small and large banks. These trends are consistent with increasing use of credit scoring models.

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Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas in its journal Economic and Financial Policy Review.

Volume (Year): (2001)
Issue (Month): Q I ()
Pages: 23-32

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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedder:y:2001:i:qi:p:23-32
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  1. Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
  2. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 1998. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 799-819, August.
  3. Mark E. Levonian, 1997. "Changes in small business lending in the West," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue jan24.
  4. Robert DeYoung & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1997. "Youth, Adolescence, and Maturity of Banks: Credit Availability to Small Business in an Era of Banking Consolidation," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-025, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  5. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
  6. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & White, Lawrence J., 1998. "De novo banks and lending to small businesses: An empirical analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 851-867, August.
  7. Karen Couch & Donna L. Parker, 2000. "'Net interest' grows as banks rush online," Southwest Economy, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Mar, pages 1-5.
  8. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
  9. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
  10. Jayaratne, Jith & Wolken, John, 1999. "How important are small banks to small business lending?: New evidence from a survey of small firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 427-458, February.
  11. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  12. Rebecca Demsetz, 1999. "Bank loan sales: a new look at the motivations for secondary market activity," Staff Reports 69, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  13. Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "What's the point of credit scoring?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Sep, pages 3-16.
  14. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan, 1997. "Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1592, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Greenbaum, Stuart I. & Kanatas, George & Venezia, Itzhak, 1989. "Equilibrium loan pricing under the bank-client relationship," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 221-235, May.
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