Banking consolidation, credit crisis and asset quality in a fragile banking system: Some evidence from Nigerian data
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to identify the major determinants of bank asset quality in an era of regulation-induced industry consolidation, using the Nigerian case to demonstrate how consolidation can heighten incidences of non-performing credits in a fragile banking environment. Design/methodology/approach – The paper makes use of panel data from 19 out of a total of 25 banks operating in Nigeria. A multivariate constant coefficient regression model is adopted as the estimation technique. The dependent variable in the model is quality of bank assets, proxied as the proportion of non-performing loans (NPL) to total loans; while operating efficiency, profitability, asset liquidity, loans to deposits ratio, predictability of depositors' behaviour, size of bank capital, and board skill constitute the exogenous variables. Findings – The study reveals that deterioration in asset quality and increased credit crisis in the Nigerian banking industry between the periods 2004 and 2008 were exacerbated by the inability of banks to optimally use their huge asset capacity to enhance their earnings profiles. It shows that excess liquidity syndrome and relatively huge capital bases fueled reckless lending by banks; and that increase in the level of unsecured credits in banks' portfolios ironically helped to mitigate the level of NPL within the studied period. Research limitations/implications – The findings here should be interpreted with caution. The reason is because of the relatively fewer number of observations and the likely biases associated with the use of pooled regression approach. Originality/value – This paper is one of the first to investigate the specific impact of banking consolidation on the quality of bank assets in an underdeveloped financial system. Among such countries facing such challenge, the Nigerian case is unique considering that the 2004/2005 banking consolidation in the country was recorded as the largest in the history of banking in Africa. The findings here make clearer the policy/practical implications of using regulation-induced consolidation to pursue the goal of increased credit flows in a less developed financial system.
Volume (Year): 19 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com|
|Order Information:|| Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK|
Web: http://emeraldgrouppublishing.com/products/journals/journals.htm?id=jfrc Email:
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- M S Mohanty & Gert Schnabel & Pablo Garcia-Luna, 2006. "Banks and aggregate credit: what is new?," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The banking system in emerging economies: how much progress has been made?, volume 28, pages 11-39 Bank for International Settlements.
- Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung, 1995.
"Problem Loans and Cost Efficiency in Commercial Banks,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
96-01, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
- Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-8, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Marsch, Katharina & Schmieder, Christian & Forster-van Aerssen, Katrin, 2007. "Banking consolidation and small businessfinance: empirical evidence for Germany," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2007,09, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Gelos, R. G. & Roldos, Jorge, 2004.
"Consolidation and market structure in emerging market banking systems,"
Emerging Markets Review,
Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 39-59, March.
- Gaston Gelos & Jorge Roldos, 2002. "Consolidation and Market Structure in Emerging Market Banking Systems," IMF Working Papers 02/186, International Monetary Fund.
- Hasan, Iftekhar & Wall , Larry D., 2003.
"Determinants of the loan loss allowance: some cross-country comparisons,"
Research Discussion Papers
33/2003, Bank of Finland.
- Iftekhar Hasan & Larry D. Wall, 2004. "Determinants of the Loan Loss Allowance: Some Cross-Country Comparisons," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 129-152, 02.
- Iftekhar Hasan & Larry D. Wall, 2004. "Determinants of the loan loss allowance: some cross-country comparisons," Finance 0404018, EconWPA.
- Bernstein, David, 1996. "Asset quality and scale economies in banking," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 157-166, May.
- Gary Gorton & Andrew Winton, 1998.
"Banking in transition economies : does efficiency require instability?,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Aug, pages 621-655.
- Gorton, Gary & Winton, Andrew, 1998. "Banking in Transition Economies: Does Efficiency Require Instability?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(3), pages 621-50, August.
- Gambacorta, Leonardo & Mistrulli, Paolo Emilio, 2004. "Does bank capital affect lending behavior?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 436-457, October.
- Tarron Khemraj, 2007. "What does excess bank liquidity say about the loan market in Less Developed Countries?," Working Papers 60, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
- Aryeetey, Ernest, et al, 1997. "Financial Market Fragmentation and Reforms in Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(2), pages 195-218, May.
- Emilia Bonaccorsi Di Patti & Giorgio Gobbi, 2007. "Winners or Losers? The Effects of Banking Consolidation on Corporate Borrowers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 669-695, 04.
- David P. Ely & Kenneth J. Robinson, 2001. "Consolidation, technology, and the changing structure of banks' small business lending," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q I, pages 23-32.
- Chen, Xiaofen, 2007. "Banking deregulation and credit risk: Evidence from the EU," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 356-390, March.
- Christian Schmieder & Katharina Marsch & Katrin Forster-van Aerssen, 2010. "Does banking consolidation worsen firms’ access to credit? Evidence from the German economy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 449-465, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eme:jfrcpp:v:19:y:2011:i:1:p:33-44. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Louise Lister)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.