Have Differences in Credit Access Diminished in an Era of Financial Market Deregulation?
Over the past few decades, financial markets have become increasingly deregulated and household debt has expanded, sometimes rapidly. It is possible that greater deregulation led to improved credit access--measured by loan denials, discouraged applications, and costs of credit-- for typically underserved groups, such as minorities and low-income families, relative to their counterparts. Data from the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances however, shows no clear trend towards equalization of credit access from 1989 to 2004. While there were some gains by specific groups by certain measures (for example, the gaps in loan denials and discouraged applications improved for Hispanics, relative to Whites), the results indicate that differences in credit access did not decrease on a broad basis during a period of large scale financial deregulation.
|Date of creation:||2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 418 N Pleasant St, Amherst MA 01002|
Phone: (413) 545-6355
Fax: (413) 545-2921
Web page: http://www.peri.umass.edu/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Krueger, Dirk & Perri, Fabrizio, 2005.
"Does income inequality lead to consumption inequality? Evidence and theory,"
CFS Working Paper Series
2005/15, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
- Dirk Krueger & Fabrizio Perri, 2005. "Does income inequality lead to consumption equality? evidence and theory," Staff Report 363, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Dirk Krueger & Fabrizio Perri, 2002. "Does Income Inequality Lead to Consumption Inequality? Evidence and Theory," NBER Working Papers 9202, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dirk Kreuger & Fabrizio Perri, 2002. "Does Income Inequality Lead to Consumption Inequality? Evidence and Theory," Working Papers 02-15, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Alicia H. Munnell, 1992.
"Mortgage lending in Boston: interpreting HMDA data,"
92-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Munnell, Alicia H. & Geoffrey M. B. Tootell & Lynn E. Browne & James McEneaney, 1996. "Mortgage Lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 25-53, March.
- Feinberg, Robert M. & Rahman, A. F. M. Ataur, 2001. "A causality test of the relationship between bank and credit union lending rates in local markets," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 271-275, May.
- Tripp, James D & Smith, Stanley D, 1993. "U.S. Credit Union Motivation for Involvement in the First-Mortgage Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 229-36, November.
- Cavalluzzo, Ken S & Cavalluzzo, Linda C, 1998. "Market Structure and Discrimination: The Case of Small Businesses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 771-92, November.
- Allen N. Berger, 2002.
"The economic effects of technological progress: evidence from the banking industry,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
2002-50, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Berger, Allen N, 2003. " The Economic Effects of Technological Progress: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(2), pages 141-76, April.
- Christian Weller & Derek Douglas, 2007. "One Nation Under Debt," Challenge, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 50(1), pages 54-75, February.
- Robert Avery & Katherine Samolyk, 2004. "Bank Consolidation and Small Business Lending: The Role of Community Banks," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 291-325, April.
- Dirk Krueger & Fabrizio Perri, 2005. "Understanding Consumption Smoothing: Evidence from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Data," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 340-349, 04/05.
- Ken Cavalluzzo & Linda Cavalluzzo & John D. Wolken, 1999. "Competition, small business financing, and discrimination: evidence from a new survey," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-25, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Robert M. Feinberg, 2001. "The Competitive Role Of Credit Unions In Small Local Financial Services Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(3), pages 560-563, August.
- Aigbe Akhigbe & Jeff Madura, 2004. "Bank acquisitions of security firms: the early evidence," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(7), pages 485-496.
- Sandra E. Black & Donald P. Morgan, 1999. "Meet the new borrowers," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 5(Feb).
- David P. Ely & Kenneth J. Robinson, 2001. "Consolidation, technology, and the changing structure of banks' small business lending," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q I, pages 23-32.
- Aigbe Akhigbe & Jeff Madura & Ann Whyte, 2004. "Partial Anticipation and the Gains to Bank Merger Targets," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 26(1), pages 55-71, August.
- Joanna Stavins, 2000. "Credit card borrowing, delinquency, and personal bankruptcy," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Jul, pages 15-30.
- David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 1998.
"Discrimination in the Small Business Credit Market,"
NBER Working Papers
6840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
- Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2004.
"Consolidation in US banking: Which banks engage in mergers?,"
Review of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 13(1-2), pages 7-39.
- David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2002. "Consolidation in US banking: which banks engage in mergers?," Working Papers 2001-003, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- Timothy Bates, 2001. "Financing the development of urban minority communities: lessons from history," Communities and Banking, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Sum, pages 12-15.
- Edward J. Bird & Paul A. Hagstrom & Robert Wild & Janet A. Weiss, 1999. "Credit card debts of the poor: High and rising," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 125-133.
- Lynn Fox & Joy Hoffmann, 2004. "Federal Reserve personal financial education initiatives," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Aut, pages 447-457.
- H. Semih Yildirim & Seung-Woog (Austin) Kwag & M. Cary Collins, 2006. "An Examination of the Equity Market Response to The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Across Commercial Banking, Investment Banking, and Insurance Firms," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(9-10), pages 1629-1649.
- Ken Cavalluzzo & John D. Wolken, 2002.
"Small business loan turndowns, personal wealth and discrimination,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
2002-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Ken Cavalluzzo & John Wolken, 2005. "Small Business Loan Turndowns, Personal Wealth, and Discrimination," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(6), pages 2153-2178, November.
- William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 2000. "Bank competition and concentration: do credit unions matter?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 29-42.
- Leggett, Keith J. & Strand, Robert W., 2002. "Membership growth, multiple membership groups and agency control at credit unions," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 37-46.
- Glenn B. Canner & Wayne Passmore, 1994. "Residential lending to low-income and minority families: evidence from the 1992 HMDA data," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 79-108.
- Hans G. Bloemen & Elena G. F. Stancanelli, 2005. "Financial Wealth, Consumption Smoothing and Income Shocks Arising from Job Loss," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 72(3), pages 431-452, 08.
- Mark C. Schug & M. Scott Niederjohn & William C. Wood, 2006. "Your Credit Counts Challenge: A Model Program for Financial Education for Low and Moderate Income Adults," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 22(Spring 20), pages 196-208.
- Abdullah Al Mamun & M. Kabir Hassan & Gordon V. Karels & Neal Maroney, 2005. "Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999: Market Assessment of Winners and Losers in the Insurance Industry," Journal of Insurance Issues, Western Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 28(1), pages 103-128.
- Marianne A. Hilgert & Jeanne M. Hogarth & Sondra G. Beverly, 2003. "Household financial management: the connection between knowledge and behavior," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jul, pages 309-322.
- Ken S. Cavalluzzo, 2002. "Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 641-680, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uma:periwp:wp144. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Judy Fogg)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.