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Consolidation in US banking: which banks engage in mergers?

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  • David C. Wheelock
  • Paul W. Wilson

Abstract

The number of U.S. commercial banks has declined by some 40 percent since 1984, primarily through mergers of solvent institutions. The relaxation of legal impediments to branching has enabled this consolidation, but specific characteristics of banks that engage in mergers reflect the regulatory process and market structure, as well as the bank's own condition. This paper seeks to quantify the regulatory, market, and financial characteristics that affect the probability of a bank engaging in mergers and the volume of banks it absorbs over time. We examine separately consolidation within holding companies and mergers of independent banks.

Suggested Citation

  • David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2002. "Consolidation in US banking: which banks engage in mergers?," Working Papers 2001-003, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2001-003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2001. "New evidence on returns to scale and product mix among U.S. commercial banks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 653-674, June.
    2. Cragg, John G, 1971. "Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(5), pages 829-844, September.
    3. Mullahy, John, 1986. "Specification and testing of some modified count data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 341-365, December.
    4. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    5. David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 1999. "The contribution of on-site examination ratings to an emprircal model of bank failures," Working Papers 1999-023, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    6. David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2000. "Why do Banks Disappear? The Determinants of U.S. Bank Failures and Acquisitions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 127-138, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ron Boschma & Matté Hartog, 2014. "Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering: The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850–1993," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 90(3), pages 247-266, July.
    2. Ryan R. Brady & Victoria A. Greenfield, 2010. "COMPETING EXPLANATIONS OF U.S. DEFENSE INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION IN THE 1990s AND THEIR POLICY IMPLICATIONS," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(2), pages 288-306, April.
    3. Valkanov, Emil & Kleimeier, Stefanie, 2007. "The role of regulatory capital in international bank mergers and acquisitions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 50-68, January.
    4. repec:eee:finana:v:54:y:2017:i:c:p:144-158 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Koetter, M. & Bos, J.W.B. & Heid, F. & Kolari, J.W. & Kool, C.J.M. & Porath, D., 2007. "Accounting for distress in bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(10), pages 3200-3217, October.
    6. Christian Weller, 2009. "Credit Access, the Costs of Credit and Credit Market Discrimination," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 36(1), pages 7-28, March.
    7. Wang, Wei-Kang & Lu, Wen-Min & Lin, Yi-Ling, 2012. "Does corporate governance play an important role in BHC performance? Evidence from the U.S," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 751-760.
    8. César Orosco, 2007. "Random utility models of demand for the U.S. commercial banking industry," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 22(2), pages 47-74, December.
    9. García-Alonso, Carlos R. & Salvador-Carulla, Luis & Fernández-Rodríguez, Vicente, 2015. "Evaluation of system efficiency using the Monte Carlo DEA: The case of small health areasAuthor-Name: Torres-Jiménez, Mercedes," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 242(2), pages 525-535.
    10. Pasiouras, Fotios & Tanna, Sailesh, 2010. "The prediction of bank acquisition targets with discriminant and logit analyses: Methodological issues and empirical evidence," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 39-61, January.
    11. Sergio SANFILIPPO AZOFRA & Maria CANTERO SAIZ & Begona TORRE OLMO & Carlos LOPEZ GUTIERREZ, 2013. "Financial Crises, Concentration and Efficiency: Effects on Performance and Risk of Banks," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 63(6), pages 537-558, December.
    12. Christian Weller, 2010. "Have Differences in Credit Access Diminished in an Era of Financial Market Deregulation?," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 68(1), pages 1-34.
    13. Pasiouras, Fotios & Gaganis, Chrysovalantis & Zopounidis, Constantin, 2010. "Multicriteria classification models for the identification of targets and acquirers in the Asian banking sector," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 204(2), pages 328-335, July.
    14. Bos, J.W.B. & Koetter, M. & Kolari, J.W. & Kool, C.J.M., 2009. "Effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 195(1), pages 251-261, May.
    15. Kosmidou, Kyriaki & Pasiouras, Fotios & Tsaklanganos, Angelos, 2007. "Domestic and multinational determinants of foreign bank profits: The case of Greek banks operating abroad," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 1-15, February.
    16. Pasiouras, Fotios & Tanna, Sailesh & Zopounidis, Constantin, 2007. "The identification of acquisition targets in the EU banking industry: An application of multicriteria approaches," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 262-281.

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    Keywords

    Bank mergers;

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