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The Effects of Bank Consolidation and Market Entry on Small Business Lending

Author

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  • Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti

    () (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department)

  • Giorgio Gobbi

    () (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department)

Abstract

Consolidation in the banking industry of many countries has reduced the number of small banks and led to significant shifts in market shares; deregulation has fostered entry in local credit markets and branch expansion, which in turn have increased competition. Small businesses are believed to be more vulnerable to these changes since they are more dependent on credit from local banks. In this paper we investigate the consequences of consolidation and entry for these borrowers compared with those for large firms. We employ a data set for Italy, which provides information on volumes of loans and bad loans by size of borrower with a detailed geographical partition. We find that mergers are followed by a temporary reduction in outstanding credit to all sizes of borrowers and by an increase in bad loans, most likely due to the reassessment of banks portfolios. Entry has a relatively persistent negative impact on credit supply to small and medium-sized firms. Our results also show that concentration, branch density and the share of branches of small banks affect the volumes of credit and bad loans of small borrowers.

Suggested Citation

  • Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti & Giorgio Gobbi, 2001. "The Effects of Bank Consolidation and Market Entry on Small Business Lending," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 404, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_404_01
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig, 2004. "Asymmetric information, bank lending and implicit contracts: the winner's curse," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 11-23, March.
    2. Atkinson, A.B. & Brandolini, A., 2000. "Promise and Pitfalls in the Use of 'Secondary' Data -Sets: Income Inequality in OECD Countries," Papers 379, Banca Italia - Servizio di Studi.
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    Cited by:

    1. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
    2. Allen Berger & Iftekhar Hasan & Leora Klapper, 2004. "Further Evidence on the Link between Finance and Growth: An International Analysis of Community Banking and Economic Performance," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 169-202, April.
    3. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 32-53, February.
    4. International Monetary Fund, 2007. "Italy—Assessing Competition and Efficiency in the Banking System," IMF Working Papers 2007/026, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Eric De Bodt & Frédéric Lobez & Jean‐Christophe Statnik, 2005. "Credit Rationing, Customer Relationship and the Number of Banks: an Empirical Analysis," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(2), pages 195-228, March.
    6. Eugenio Gaiotti & Andrea Generale, 2002. "Does Monetary Policy Have Asymmetric Effects? A Look at the Investment Decisions of Italian Firms," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 61(1), pages 29-59, June.
    7. Luca Dedola & Eugenio Gaiotti & Luca Silipo, 2001. "Money demand in the euro area: do national differences matter?," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 405, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    8. Enrico Beretta & Silvia Del Prete, 2007. "Bank consolidation and lending policies to small business: Differences across geographical areas," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 644, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    9. Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia & Gobbi, Giorgio, 2001. "The changing structure of local credit markets: Are small businesses special?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2209-2237, December.
    10. Alexopoulos, Yiorgos & Goglio, Silvio, 2011. "Financial Cooperatives: Problems and Challenges in the Post-Crisis Era," Journal of Rural Cooperation, Hebrew University, Center for Agricultural Economic Research, vol. 39(1), pages 1-14.
    11. Clarke, George & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad & Sanchez, Susana M., 2001. "Foreign bank entry - experience, implications for developing countries, and agenda for further research," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2698, The World Bank.
    12. Christian Schmieder & Katharina Marsch & Katrin Forster-van Aerssen, 2010. "Does banking consolidation worsen firms’ access to credit? Evidence from the German economy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 449-465, November.
    13. Enrico Beretta & Silvia Del Prete, 2013. "Banking consolidation and bank-firm credit relationships: the role of geographical features and relationship characteristics," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 901, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    14. Angela S. Bergantino & Claudia Capozza, 2018. "Banking market structure and industry growth in the Central-East Europe region," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 54(3), pages 1319-1333, May.
    15. Francesca Gagliardi, 2009. "Financial development and the growth of cooperative firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 439-464, April.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Commercial banks; mergers; entry; small business lending;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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