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Bank consolidation and lending policies to small business: Differences across geographical areas

  • Enrico Beretta

    ()

    (Bank of Italy, Branch of Genoa, Research Office)

  • Silvia Del Prete

    ()

    (Bank of Italy, Branch of Florence, Research Office)

Registered author(s):

    Using Bank of Italy data on Italian banks in the period 1990-2004, the paper analyses the short and long-run effects of the concentration of the banking industry on the availability of credit to small and medium-sized firms. Our study employs a bank-based approach and investigates the differential effects of banking consolidation in the various geographical areas, in order to capture the influence of the different economic contexts. Our research also considers the different groups of intermediaries involved, as well as the role of �new entry� banks and of those not involved in consolidations (e.g. rivals). We find that banks� specialization in terms of credit policy seems to be affected by M&As. On the one hand, the portion of credit allocated to small businesses decreases in the long run after mergers, which result in a more pronounced size change and a more complex organizational structure; this effect is stronger in the South and in the North East of Italy. On the other hand, in the case of acquisitions, banking groups improve their �expertise� in small business lending. These results hold in all the main geographical areas, except for the southern regions, where � everything being equal � small firms are riskier and banks� takeovers are motivated mainly by the need to allow financial restructuring. However, in this market, the entry of new banks and close relationships between local banks and agglomerations of small firms partly offset the lower specialization on small business financing induced by acquisitions.

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    File URL: http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/temi-discussione/2007/2007-0644/tema_644.pdf
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    Paper provided by Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area in its series Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) with number 644.

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    Date of creation: Nov 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_644_07
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    1. Dario Focarelli & Fabio Panetta & Carmelo Salleo, 1999. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 361, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    2. Jalal Akhavein & W. Scott Frame & Lawrence J. White, 2005. "The Diffusion of Financial Innovations: An Examination of the Adoption of Small Business Credit Scoring by Large Banking Organizations," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(2), pages 577-596, March.
    3. Allen N. Berger & Seth D. Bonime & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1999. "The dynamics of market entry: the effects of mergers and acquisitions on do novo entry and small business lending in the banking industry," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-41, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Allen N. Berger & Anthony Saunders & Joseph M. Scalise & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-007, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    5. Dario Focarelli & Fabio Panetta & Carmelo Salleo, 1999. "Why do banks merge? some empirical evidence from Italy," Proceedings 646, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    6. Fabio Panetta & Fabiano Schivardi & Matthew Shum, 2004. "Do mergers improve information? evidence from the loan market," Proceedings 942, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    7. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2001. "Small business credit availability and relationship lending: the importance of bank organizational structure," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. William R. Keeton, 2000. "Are mergers responsible for the surge in new bank charters?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q I, pages 21-41.
    9. Williamson, Oliver E, 1988. " Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 567-91, July.
    10. Allen N. Berger & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2001. "The effects of dynamic changes in bank competition on the supply of small business credit," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    11. Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti & Giorgio Gobbi, 2001. "The Effects of Bank Consolidation and Market Entry on Small Business Lending," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 404, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    12. Paola Sapienza, 2002. "The Effects of Banking Mergers on Loan Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 329-367, 02.
    13. Allen N. Berger & Seth D. Bonime & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1999. "The Dymanics of Market Entry: The Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions on De Novo Entry and Small Business Lending in the Banking Industry," Working Papers 99-13, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    14. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 1998. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 799-819, August.
    15. Allen N. Berger & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2001. "The Effects of Dynamic Changes in Bank Competition on the Supply of Small Business Credit," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 5(1-2), pages 115-139.
    16. Scott, Jonathan A & Dunkelberg, William C, 2003. " Bank Mergers and Small Firm Financing," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(6), pages 999-1017, December.
    17. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 2006. "A more complete conceptual framework for SME finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2945-2966, November.
    18. Focarelli, Dario & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2002. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 1047-66, November.
    19. Focarelli, D. & Panetta, F. & Salleo, C., 1999. "Why do Banks Merge?," Papers 361, Banca Italia - Servizio di Studi.
    20. Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti & Giorgio Gobbi, 2003. "The effects of bank mergers on credit availability: evidence from corporate data," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 479, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    21. Allen N. Berger & W. Scott Frame, 2005. "Small business credit scoring and credit availability," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2005-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    22. Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia & Gobbi, Giorgio, 2001. "The changing structure of local credit markets: Are small businesses special?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2209-2237, December.
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