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Credit Scoring and the Availability, Price, and Risk of Small Business Credit

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  • Berger, Allen N
  • Frame, W Scott
  • Miller, Nathan H

Abstract

We find that small business credit scoring (SBCS) is associated with expanded quantities, higher average prices, and greater average risk levels for small business credits under $100,000, after controlling for bank size and other differences across banks. We also find that: 1) bank-specific and industry learning curves are important; 2) SBCS effects differ for banks that adhere to "rules" versus "discretion" in using the technology; and 3) SBCS effects differ for larger credits. The data do not support two alternative explanations of the main results under which the findings primarily represent statistical artifacts, rather than significant changes in lending behavior.

Suggested Citation

  • Berger, Allen N & Frame, W Scott & Miller, Nathan H, 2005. "Credit Scoring and the Availability, Price, and Risk of Small Business Credit," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(2), pages 191-222, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:37:y:2005:i:2:p:191-222
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 2003. "Explaining the dramatic changes in performance of US banks: technological change, deregulation, and dynamic changes in competition," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 57-95, January.
    2. Gautam Gowrisankaran & Joanna Stavins, 2004. "Network Externalities and Technology Adoption: Lessons from Electronic Payments," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(2), pages 260-276, Summer.
    3. Jalal Akhavein & W. Scott Frame & Lawrence J. White, 2005. "The Diffusion of Financial Innovations: An Examination of the Adoption of Small Business Credit Scoring by Large Banking Organizations," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(2), pages 577-596, March.
    4. Thomas F. Brady & William B. English & William R. Nelson, 1998. "Recent changes to the Federal Reserve's survey of terms of business lending," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Aug, pages 604-615.
    5. Frame, W Scott & Srinivasan, Aruna & Woosley, Lynn, 2001. "The Effect of Credit Scoring on Small-Business Lending," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 813-825, August.
    6. D. J. Hand & W. E. Henley, 1997. "Statistical Classification Methods in Consumer Credit Scoring: a Review," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 160(3), pages 523-541.
    7. Berger, Allen N. & Saunders, Anthony & Scalise, Joseph M. & Udell, Gregory F., 1998. "The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on small business lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 187-229, November.
    8. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 32-53, February.
    9. Wheelock, David C & Wilson, Paul W, 1999. "Technical Progress, Inefficiency, and Productivity Change in U.S. Banking, 1984-1993," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 212-234, May.
    10. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 2000. "Credit Scoring: Statistical Issues and Evidence from Credit-Bureau Files," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 523-547.
    11. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
    12. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "What's the point of credit scoring?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Sep, pages 3-16.
    14. W. Scott Frame & Michael Padhi & Lynn W. Woosley, 2001. "The effect of credit scoring on small business lending in low- and moderate-income areas," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2001-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
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