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Potential competitive effects of Basel II on banks in SME credit markets in the United States

  • Allen N. Berger

We examine the likely competitive effects of the proposed implementation of the Basel II capital requirements on banks in the market for credit to SMEs in the U.S. Specifically, we address whether reduced risk weights for SME credits extended by large banking organizations that adopt the Advanced Internal Ratings-Based (A-IRB) approach of Basel II might significantly adversely affect the competitive positions of organizations that do not adopt A-IRB. The analyses suggest only a relatively minor competitive effect on the majority of community banks primarily because the organizations that are likely to adopt A-IRB tend to make very different types of SME loans to different types of borrowers than community banks. However, the analyses suggest the possibility of significant adverse effects on the competitive positions of large banking organizations that do not adopt A-IRB because the data do not suggest any strong segmentation in SME credit markets among large organizations.

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Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2004-12.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2004-12
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  1. Hendrik Hakenes & Isabel Schnabel, 2005. "Bank Size and Risk-Taking under Basel II," Working Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods 2005_6, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.
  2. Allen N. Berger & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2001. "The effects of dynamic changes in bank competition on the supply of small business credit," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Philip E. Strahan & James Weston, 1996. "Small business lending and bank consolidation: is there cause for concern?," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 2(Mar).
  4. Allen N. Berger & W. Scott Frame & Nathan H. Miller, 2002. "Credit scoring and the availability, price, and risk of small business credit," Working Paper 2002-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  5. William R. Keeton, 1995. "Multi-office bank lending to small businesses: some new evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 45-57.
  6. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
  7. S. Baranzoni & P. Bianchi & L. Lambertini, 2000. "Market Structure," Working Papers 368, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  8. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-06, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  9. Berger, Allen N. & Rosen, Richard J. & Udell, Gregory F., 2007. "Does market size structure affect competition? The case of small business lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 11-33, January.
  10. Berger, Allen N. & Saunders, Anthony & Scalise, Joseph M. & Udell, Gregory F., 1998. "The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on small business lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 187-229, November.
  11. Patrick de Fontnouvelle & Victoria Garrity & Scott Chu & Eric Rosengren, 2005. "The potential impact of explicit Basel II operational risk capital charges on the competitive environment of processing banks in the United States," Basel II White Paper 4, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  12. Frame, W Scott & Srinivasan, Aruna & Woosley, Lynn, 2001. "The Effect of Credit Scoring on Small-Business Lending," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 813-25, August.
  13. Timothy H. Hannan & Steven J. Pilloff, 2005. "Will the Adoption of Basel II Encourage Increased Bank Merger Activity? Evidence from the United States," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
  14. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
  15. Rebel A. Cole & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1997. "Cookie-Cutter versus Character: The Micro Structure of Small Business Lending by Large and Small Banks," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-022, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  16. Repullo, Rafael & Suarez, Javier, 2003. "Loan Pricing Under Basel Capital Requirements," CEPR Discussion Papers 3917, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Timothy H. Hannan & Steven J. Pilloff, 2004. "Will the proposed application of Basel II in the United States encourage increased bank merger activity? evidence from past merger activity," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-13, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  18. Allen Berger & Timothy Hannan, 1994. "The Efficiency Cost of Market Power in the Banking Industry: A Test of the 'Quiet Life' and Related Hypotheses," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 94-29, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  19. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Debt Maturity Structure and Liquidity Risk," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(3), pages 709-37, August.
  20. Kwangwoo Park & George G. Pennachi, 2004. "Harming depositors and helping borrowers: the disparate impact of bank consolidation," Proceedings 939, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  21. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 1998. "Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 799-819, August.
  22. Allen N. Berger & Richard J. Herring & Giorgio P. Szego, 1995. "The role of capital in financial institutions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-23, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  23. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1995. "Universal banking and the future of small business lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  24. Allen N. Berger & Marco A. Espinosa-Vega & W. Scott Frame & Nathan H. Miller, 2004. "Debt maturity, risk, and asymmetric information," Working Paper 2004-32, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  25. George W. Haynes & Charles Ou & Robert Berney, 1999. "Small business borrowing from large and small banks," Proceedings 776, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  26. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages F32-F53, February.
  27. Flannery, Mark J, 1986. " Asymmetric Information and Risky Debt Maturity Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(1), pages 19-37, March.
  28. Jayaratne, Jith & Wolken, John, 1999. "How important are small banks to small business lending?: New evidence from a survey of small firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 427-458, February.
  29. Allen N. Berger & Seth D. Bonime & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2004. "The Dynamics of Market Entry: The Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions on Entry in the Banking Industry," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(4), pages 797-834, October.
  30. Linda Allen & Anthony Saunders, 2004. "The Path to Basel II Adoption," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 101-102, October.
  31. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
  32. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 1990. "Collateral, loan quality and bank risk," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 21-42, January.
  33. Diana Hancock and James A. Wilcox., 1998. "The "Credit Crunch" and the Availability of Credit to Small Business," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-282, University of California at Berkeley.
  34. Hancock, Diana & Wilcox, James A., 1998. "The "credit crunch" and the availability of credit to small business," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 983-1014, August.
  35. Keeton, William R., 1995. "Multi-Office Bank Lending To Small Businesses: Some New Evidence," Proceedings: 1995 Regional Committee NC-207, October 16-17, 1995, Kansas City, Missouri 131493, Regional Research Committee NC-1014: Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition.
  36. Kwangwoo Park & George Pennacchi, 2007. "Harming depositors and helping borrowers: the disparate impact of bank consolidation," Working Paper 0704, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  37. Donald Morgan & Adam Ashcraft, 2003. "Using Loan Rates to Measure and Regulate Bank Risk: Findings and an Immodest Proposal," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 181-200, October.
  38. Hannan, Timothy H., 1991. "Bank commercial loan markets and the role of market structure: evidence from surveys of commercial lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 133-149, February.
  39. Williamson, Oliver E, 1988. " Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 567-91, July.
  40. Edward Altman & Gabriele Sabato, 2005. "Effects of the New Basel Capital Accord on Bank Capital Requirements for SMEs," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 15-42, October.
  41. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
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