IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/oup/rfinst/v22y2009i1p1-40.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Harming Depositors and Helping Borrowers: The Disparate Impact of Bank Consolidation

Author

Listed:
  • Kwangwoo Park
  • George Pennacchi

Abstract

A model of multimarket spatial competition is developed where small, single-market banks compete with large, multimarket banks (LMBs) for retail loans and deposits. Consistent with empirical evidence, LMBs are assumed to set retail interest rates uniformly across markets, have different operating costs, and have access to wholesale funding. If LMBs have significant funding advantages that offset potential loan operating cost disadvantages, then market-extension mergers by LMBs promote loan competition, especially in concentrated markets. However, such mergers reduce retail deposit competition, especially in less concentrated markets. Prior empirical research and our own analysis of retail deposit rates support the model's predictions. The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org., Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Kwangwoo Park & George Pennacchi, 2009. "Harming Depositors and Helping Borrowers: The Disparate Impact of Bank Consolidation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 1-40, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:22:y:2009:i:1:p:1-40
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1093/rfs/hhn051
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. O. Emre Ergungor, 2002. "Community banks as small business lenders: the tough road ahead," Working Papers (Old Series) 0203, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    2. Oliver E. Williamson, 1967. "Hierarchical Control and Optimum Firm Size," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 123-123.
    3. Lawrence J. Radecki, 1998. "The expanding geographic reach of retail banking markets," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 4(Jun), pages 15-34.
    4. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1995. "Universal banking and the future of small business lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Jayaratne, Jith & Morgan, Donald P, 2000. "Capital Market Frictions and Deposit Constraints at Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 74-92, February.
    6. Elizabeth K. Kiser, 2004. "Modeling the whole firm: the effect of multiple inputs and financial intermediation on bank deposit rates," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-07, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    7. Kishan, Ruby P & Opiela, Timothy P, 2000. "Bank Size, Bank Capital, and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 121-141, February.
    8. Hughes, Joseph P. & Lang, William W. & Mester, Loretta J. & Moon, Choon-Geol, 1999. "The dollars and sense of bank consolidation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 291-324, February.
    9. Berger, Allen N. & Rosen, Richard J. & Udell, Gregory F., 2007. "Does market size structure affect competition? The case of small business lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 11-33, January.
    10. Berger, Allen N & Frame, W Scott & Miller, Nathan H, 2005. "Credit Scoring and the Availability, Price, and Risk of Small Business Credit," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(2), pages 191-222, April.
    11. Allen N. Berger & Astrid A. Dick & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2007. "Competition from Large, Multimarket Firms and the Performance of Small, Single-Market Firms: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(2-3), pages 331-368, March.
    12. Steven Pilloff & Stephen Rhoades, 2000. "Do Large, Diversified Banking Organizations Have Competitive Advantages?," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 16(3), pages 287-302, May.
    13. Chiappori, Pierre-Andre & Perez-Castrillo, David & Verdier, Thierry, 1995. "Spatial competition in the banking system: Localization, cross subsidies and the regulation of deposit rates," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 889-918, May.
    14. Rosen, Richard J., 2007. "Banking market conditions and deposit interest rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 3862-3884, December.
    15. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    16. Pita Barros, Pedro, 1999. "Multimarket competition in banking, with an example from the Portuguese market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 335-352, April.
    17. William F. Bassett & Thomas F. Brady, 2002. "What drives the persistent competitiveness of small banks?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-28, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    18. Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
    19. Rebel A. Cole & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1997. "Cookie-Cutter versus Character: The Micro Structure of Small Business Lending by Large and Small Banks," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-022, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    20. Erik Heitfield & Robin A. Prager, 2002. "The geographic scope of retail deposit markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-49, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    21. Murillo Campello, 2002. "Internal Capital Markets in Financial Conglomerates: Evidence from Small Bank Responses to Monetary Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2773-2805, December.
    22. Wolken, John D. & Rose, John T., 1991. "Dominant banks, market power, and out-of-market productive capacity," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 215-229, August.
    23. Steven Pilloff, 1999. "Multimarket Contact in Banking," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 14(2), pages 163-182, March.
    24. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    25. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
    26. Robert Berney & George W. Haynes & Charles Ou, 1999. "Small business borrowing from large and small banks," Proceedings 776, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Kenneth P. Brevoort & John D. Wolken, 2008. "Does distance matter in banking?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. de la Torre, Augusto & Martínez Pería, María Soledad & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2010. "Bank involvement with SMEs: Beyond relationship lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2280-2293, September.
    3. Allen Berger, 2006. "Potential Competitive Effects of Basel II on Banks in SME Credit Markets in the United States," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 29(1), pages 5-36, February.
    4. Allen N. Berger & Astrid A. Dick & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence White, 2005. "The Effects of Competition from Large, Multimarket Firms on the Performance of Small, Single-Market Firms: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Working Papers 05-02, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    5. Hans Degryse & Steven Ongena, 2004. "The Impact of Competition on Bank Orientation and Specialization (new titel: The impact of competition on bank orientation)," CESifo Working Paper Series 1119, CESifo.
    6. Delgado, J. & Salas, V. & Saurina, J., 2007. "Joint size and ownership specialization in bank lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 3563-3583, December.
    7. Allen N. Berger & Seth D. Bonime & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1999. "The Dymanics of Market Entry: The Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions on De Novo Entry and Small Business Lending in the Banking Industry," Working Papers 99-13, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    8. Hans Degryse & Steven Ongena, 2005. "Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 231-266, February.
    9. Degryse, H.A. & Cerqueiro, G.M. & Ongena, S., 2007. "Distance, Bank Organizational Structure and Credit," Other publications TiSEM 34c2f607-3395-4fd9-9c52-4, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    10. Allen Berger & Iftekhar Hasan & Leora Klapper, 2004. "Further Evidence on the Link between Finance and Growth: An International Analysis of Community Banking and Economic Performance," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 169-202, April.
    11. Cosci Stefania & Meliciani Valentina, 2007. "The role of screening and cross-selling in bank-firm relationships," wp.comunite 0033, Department of Communication, University of Teramo.
    12. Hannan, Timothy H. & Prager, Robin A., 2009. "The profitability of small single-market banks in an era of multi-market banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 263-271, February.
    13. Joseph P. Hughes & Julapa Jagtiani & Loretta J. Mester, 2016. "Is Bigger Necessarily Better in Community Banking?," Working Papers (Old Series) 1615, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    14. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 32-53, February.
    15. Hannan, Timothy H., 2006. "Retail deposit fees and multimarket banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 2561-2578, September.
    16. Richards, Timothy J. & Acharya, Ram N. & Kagan, Albert, 2008. "Spatial competition and market power in banking," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(5), pages 436-454.
    17. Berger, Allen N. & Goulding, William & Rice, Tara, 2014. "Do small businesses still prefer community banks?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 264-278.
    18. George A. Kahn & William R. Keeton & Linda Schroeder & Stuart E. Weiner, 2003. "The role of community banks in the U.S. economy," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 15-43.
    19. Mkhaiber, Achraf & Werner, Richard A., 2021. "The relationship between bank size and the propensity to lend to small firms: New empirical evidence from a large sample," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 110(C).
    20. Allen N. Berger & Astrid A. Dick & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 2007. "Competition from Large, Multimarket Firms and the Performance of Small, Single‐Market Firms: Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(2‐3), pages 331-368, March.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:22:y:2009:i:1:p:1-40. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Oxford University Press to update the entry or send us the correct email address or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/sfsssea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.