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Negative interest rates, excess liquidity and bank business models: Banks’ reaction to unconventional monetary policy in the euro area

Author

Listed:
  • S. Demiralp

    () (Koc University)

  • J. Eisenschmidt

    (ECB)

  • T. Vlassopoulos

    (ECB)

Abstract

In June 2014 the ECB became the first major central bank to lower one of its key policy rates to negative territory. The theoretical and empirical literature is silent on whether banks’ reaction would be different when the policy rate is lowered to negative levels compared to a standard reaction to a rate cut. In this paper we examine this question empirically by using individual bank data for the euro area to identify possible adjustments by banks triggered by the introduction of negative interest rates through three channels: government bond holdings, bank lending, and wholesale funding. We find evidence of a significant adjustment of banks’ balance sheets during the negative interest rate period. Banks tend to extend more loans, hold more non-domestic government bonds and rely less on wholesale funding. The nature and scope of the adjustment depends on banks’ business models.

Suggested Citation

  • S. Demiralp & J. Eisenschmidt & T. Vlassopoulos, 2017. "Negative interest rates, excess liquidity and bank business models: Banks’ reaction to unconventional monetary policy in the euro area," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1708, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
  • Handle: RePEc:koc:wpaper:1708
    as

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    File URL: http://eaf.ku.edu.tr/sites/eaf.ku.edu.tr/files/erf_wp_1708.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Clemens Bonner, 2016. "Preferential Regulatory Treatment and Banks' Demand for Government Bonds," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 48(6), pages 1195-1221, September.
    2. Rita Babihuga & Marco Spaltro, 2014. "Bank Funding Costs for International Banks," IMF Working Papers 14/71, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Borio, Claudio & Zhu, Haibin, 2012. "Capital regulation, risk-taking and monetary policy: A missing link in the transmission mechanism?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 236-251.
    4. Morten Linnemann Bech & Aytek Malkhozov, 2016. "How have central banks implemented negative policy rates?," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    5. Billett, Matthew T & Garfinkel, Jon A, 2004. "Financial Flexibility and the Cost of External Finance for U.S. Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(5), pages 827-852, October.
    6. Stijn Claessens & Nicholas Coleman & Michael S. Donnelly, 2016. ""Low-for-Long" Interest Rates and Net Interest Margins of Banks in Advanced Foreign Economies," IFDP Notes 2016-04-11-1, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Negative Nominal Interest Rates and Banking
      by Steve Cecchetti and Kim Schoenholtz in Money, Banking and Financial Markets on 2018-10-22 12:23:45

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Kerstin Bernoth & Alexander Haas, 2018. "Negative Interest Rates and the Signalling Channel: In-Depth Analysis," DIW Berlin: Politikberatung kompakt, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, volume 127, number pbk130, October.
    2. Ryan, Ellen & Whelan, Karl, 2019. "Quantitative Easing and the Hot Potato Effect: Evidence from Euro Area Banks," CEPR Discussion Papers 13499, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. repec:ecb:ecbrbu:2018:0043:1 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Eisenschmidt, Jens & Kedan, Danielle & Schmitz, Martin & Adalid, Ramón & Papsdorf, Patrick, 2017. "The Eurosystem’s asset purchase programme and TARGET balances," Occasional Paper Series 196, European Central Bank.
    5. Heider, Florian & Saidi, Farzad & Schepens, Glenn, 2018. "Life below zero: Bank lending under negative policy rates," CEPR Discussion Papers 13191, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Molyneux, Philip & Reghezza, Alessio & Xie, Ru, 2019. "Bank margins and profits in a world of negative rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 1-1.
    7. Andreas Beyer & Benoît Coeuré & Caterina Mendicino, 2017. "Foreword – The crisis, ten years after: Lessons learnt for monetary and financial research," Economie et Statistique / Economics and Statistics, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE), issue 494-495-4, pages 45-64.
    8. Phil Molyneux & Rue Xie & John Thornton & Alessio Reghezza, 2017. "Did Negative Interest Rates Impact Bank Lending?," Working Papers 17002, Bangor Business School, Prifysgol Bangor University (Cymru / Wales).
    9. Schepens, Glenn, 2018. "Bank lending under negative policy rates," Research Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 43.
    10. Margherita Bottero & Camelia Minoiu & José-Luis Peydró & Andrea Polo & Andrea F. Presbitero & Enrico Sette, 2019. "Expansionary Yet Different: Credit Supply and Real Effects of Negative Interest Rate Policy," Working Papers 1090, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    11. Amzallag, Adrien & Calza, Alessandro & Georgarakos, Dimitris & Sousa, João, 2019. "Monetary policy transmission to mortgages in a negative interest rate environment," Working Paper Series 2243, European Central Bank.
    12. Hu, Jing & Harmsen, Robert & Crijns-Graus, Wina & Worrell, Ernst, 2018. "Barriers to investment in utility-scale variable renewable electricity (VRE) generation projects," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 730-744.
    13. Urbschat, Florian, 2018. "The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Impact of Negative Interest Rates and QE on the Profitability and Risk-Taking of 1600 German Banks," Discussion Papers in Economics 56535, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    14. Óscar Arce & Miguel García-Posada & Sergio Mayordomo & Steven Ongena, 2018. "Adapting lending policies when negative interest rates hit banks’ profits," Working Papers 1832, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    15. Baldo, Luca & Hallinger, Benoît & Helmus, Caspar & Herrala, Niko & Martins, Débora & Mohing, Felix & Petroulakis, Filippos & Resinek, Marc & Vergote, Olivier & Usciati, Benoît & Wang, Yizhou, 2017. "The distribution of excess liquidity in the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 200, European Central Bank.
    16. Lopez, Jose A & Rose, Andrew K & Spiegel, Mark, 2018. "Why Have Negative Nominal Interest Rates Had Such a Small Effect on Bank Performance? Cross Country Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 13010, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. repec:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2017_num_494_1_10781 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Christoph Basten & Mike Mariathasan, 2018. "How Banks Respond to Negative Interest Rates: Evidence from the Swiss Exemption Threshold," CESifo Working Paper Series 6901, CESifo Group Munich.
    19. Altavilla, Carlo & Boucinha, Miguel & Holton, Sarah & Ongena, Steven, 2018. "Credit supply and demand in unconventional times," Working Paper Series 2202, European Central Bank.
    20. Jens Eisenschmidt & Frank Smets, 2019. "Negative Interest Rates: Lessons from the Euro Area," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Álvaro Aguirre & Markus Brunnermeier & Diego Saravia (ed.), Monetary Policy and Financial Stability: Transmission Mechanisms and Policy Implications, edition 1, volume 26, chapter 2, pages 013-042, Central Bank of Chile.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    negative rates; bank balance sheets; monetary transmission mechanism.;

    JEL classification:

    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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