IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition

Listed author(s):
  • HANS DEGRYSE
  • STEVEN ONGENA

We study the effect on loan conditions of geographical distance between firms, the lending bank, and all other banks in the vicinity. For our study, we employ detailed contract information from more than 15,000 bank loans to small firms comprising the entire loan portfolio of a large Belgian bank. We report the first comprehensive evidence on the occurrence of spatial price discrimination in bank lending. Loan rates decrease with the distance between the firm and the lending bank and increase with the distance between the firm and competing banks. Transportation costs cause the spatial price discrimination we observe. Copyright 2005 by The American Finance Association.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2005.00729.x
File Function: link to full text
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by American Finance Association in its journal The Journal of Finance.

Volume (Year): 60 (2005)
Issue (Month): 1 (02)
Pages: 231-266

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:60:y:2005:i:1:p:231-266
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.afajof.org/

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Web: http://www.afajof.org/membership/join.asp

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Almazan, Andres, 2002. "A Model of Competition in Banking: Bank Capital vs Expertise," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 87-121, January.
  2. Allen Berger & Robert DeYoung, 2001. "The Effects of Geographic Expansion on Bank Efficiency," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 163-184, April.
  3. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
  4. Kim, M. & Kristiansen, E.G. & Vale, B., 2001. "Endogenous Product Differentiation in Credit Markets: What do Borrowers Pay for?," Papers 27/2001, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
  5. Elsas, Ralf & Krahnen, Jan Pieter, 1998. "Is relationship lending special? Evidence from credit-file data in Germany," CFS Working Paper Series 1998/05, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  6. Pita Barros, Pedro, 1999. "Multimarket competition in banking, with an example from the Portuguese market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 335-352, April.
  7. Arnoud W. A. Boot & Anjan V. Thakor, 2000. "Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 679-713, 04.
  8. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.
  9. Richard Portes & Hélène Rey, 2001. "The Determinants of Cross-Border Equity Flows," DELTA Working Papers 2001-08, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  10. Machauer, Achim & Weber, Martin, 1998. "Bank behavior based on internal credit ratings of borrowers," CFS Working Paper Series 1998/08, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  11. Berger, Allen N. & Dai, Qinglei & Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2003. "To what extent will the banking industry be globalized? A study of bank nationality and reach in 20 European nations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 383-415, March.
  12. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung & Hesna Genay & Gregory F. Udell, 2000. "Globalization of financial institutions: evidence from cross-border banking performance," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-04, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  13. Fiona Scott Morton & Florian Zettelmeyer & Jorge Silva-Risso, 2001. "Consumer Information and Price Discrimination: Does the Internet Affect the Pricing of New Cars to Women and Minorities?," NBER Working Papers 8668, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Degryse, H.A., 1996. "On the interaction between vertical and horizontal product differentiation : An application to banking," Other publications TiSEM 384e9355-ea79-4b3e-90cb-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  15. Anderson, Simon P & de Palma, André, 1996. "From Local to Global Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers 1328, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Crabbe, Leland, 1991. " Event Risk: An Analysis of Losses to Bondholders and "Super Poison Put" Bond Covenants," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 689-706, June.
  17. Hyytinen, Ari & Toivanen, Otto, 2002. "Does Distance Matter in Deposit Supply? A Banklevel Study," Discussion Papers 814, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  18. Wong, Kit Pong & Chan, Derek K., 1993. "A simple model of spatial banking competition," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 391-397.
  19. Huberman, Gur, 2001. "Familiarity Breeds Investment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 659-680.
  20. Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-1271, November.
  21. Paul S. Calem & Leonard I. Nakamura, 1998. "Branch Banking And The Geography Of Bank Pricing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 600-610, November.
  22. Simon P. Anderson & André De Palma & Jacques-François Thisse, 1989. "Demand for Differentiated Products, Discrete Choice Models, and the Characteristics Approach," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(1), pages 21-35.
  23. Broecker, Thorsten, 1990. "Credit-Worthiness Tests and Interbank Competition," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(2), pages 429-452, March.
  24. Bester, Helmut & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 1995. "Price competition and advertising in oligopoly," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 1075-1088, June.
  25. Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2000. "What Determines the Number of Bank Relationships? Cross-Country Evidence," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 26-56, January.
  26. Lederer, Phillip J & Hurter, Arthur P, Jr, 1986. "Competition of Firms: Discriminatory Pricing and Location," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 623-640, May.
  27. Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2001. "The duration of bank relationships," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 449-475, September.
  28. Phlips,Louis, 1983. "The Economics of Price Discrimination," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521283946, October.
  29. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
  30. Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni, 2001. "Asymmetric information and the structure of the banking industry," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 1957-1980, December.
  31. Barclay, Michael J & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1995. " The Maturity Structure of Corporate Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(2), pages 609-631, June.
  32. Steven A. Sharpe, 1989. "Asymmetric information, bank lending, and implicit contracts: a stylized model of customer relationships," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 70, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  33. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2000. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," NBER Working Papers 7685, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Paul Harrison & Oren Sussman & Joseph Zeira, 1999. "Finance and growth: theory and new evidence," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  35. Rebel A. Cole & John D. Wolken, 1995. "Financial services used by small businesses: evidence from the 1993 National Survey of Small Business Finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jul, pages 629-667.
  36. Jeremy C. Stein, 2000. "Information Production and Capital Allocation: Decentralized vs. Hierarchical Firms," NBER Working Papers 7705, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  37. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1988. "Collateral, loan quality, and bank risk," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 51, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  38. Drew Fudenberg & Jean Tirole, 2000. "Customer Poaching and Brand Switching," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(4), pages 634-657, Winter.
  39. Hannan, Timothy H., 1991. "Bank commercial loan markets and the role of market structure: evidence from surveys of commercial lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 133-149, February.
  40. Bouckaert, J.M.C. & Degryse, H.A., 2001. "Borrower Poaching and Information Display in Credit Markets," Discussion Paper 2001-41, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  41. Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Information Production and Capital Allocation: Decentralized versus Hierarchical Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1891-1921, October.
  42. Irmen, Andreas & Thisse, Jacques-François, 1996. "Competition in Multi-characteristics Spaces: Hotelling was Almost Right," CEPR Discussion Papers 1446, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  43. Harker,Patrick T. & Zenios,Stavros A. (ed.), 2000. "Performance of Financial Institutions," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521771542, October.
  44. Allen N. Berger & Nathan H. Miller & Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Does Function Follow Organizational Form? Evidence From the Lending Practices of Large and Small Banks," NBER Working Papers 8752, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  45. Corvoisier, Sandrine & Gropp, Reint, 2001. "Bank Concentration and Retail Interest Rates," Working Paper Series 0072, European Central Bank.
  46. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
  47. Claudia M. Buch, 2001. "Distance and International Banking," Kiel Working Papers 1043, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  48. Thakor, Anjan V., 2000. "Relationship Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-5, January.
  49. THISSE, Jacques-François & VIVES, Xavier, "undated". "On the strategic choice of spatial price policy," CORE Discussion Papers RP 793, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  50. Lucio Fuentelsaz & Jaime Gomez, 2001. "Strategic and Queue effects on Entry in Spanish Banking," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(4), pages 529-563, December.
  51. Harker,Patrick T. & Zenios,Stavros A. (ed.), 2000. "Performance of Financial Institutions," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521777674, October.
  52. Allen N. Berger & Richard J. Rosen & Gregory F. Udell, 2001. "The effect of market size structure on competition: the case of small business lending," Working Paper Series WP-01-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  53. Grosse, Robert & Goldberg, Lawrence G., 1991. "Foreign bank activity in the United States: An analysis by country of origin," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1093-1112, December.
  54. Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716.
  55. Ken S. Cavalluzzo, 2002. "Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 641-680, October.
  56. Kim, Moshe & Kliger, Doron & Vale, Bent, 2003. "Estimating switching costs: the case of banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 25-56, January.
  57. Gropp, Reint & Corvoisier, Sandrine, 2009. "Contestability, Technology and Banking," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-007, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  58. Harhoff, Dietmar & Körting, Timm, 1998. "Lending Relationships in Germany: Empirical Results from Survey Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 1917, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  59. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
  60. Sussman, Oren & Zeira, Joseph, 1995. "Banking and Development," CEPR Discussion Papers 1127, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  61. Ongena, S. & Smith, D.C., 2000. "Bank relationships : A review," Other publications TiSEM 993b88a5-9a0f-42de-9cec-6, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  62. Robert Gary-Bobo & Sophie Larribeau, 2002. "A Structural Econometric Model of Price Discrimination in the Mortgage Lending Industry," CESifo Working Paper Series 739, CESifo Group Munich.
  63. Hondroyiannis, George & Papapetrou, Evangelia, 1996. "International banking activity in Greece: The recent experience," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 207-215, August.
  64. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-381, July.
  65. Bresnahan, T.F & Reiss, P.C., 1989. "Entry And Competition In Concentrated Markets," Papers 151, Stanford - Studies in Industry Economics.
  66. Paola Sapienza, 2002. "The Effects of Banking Mergers on Loan Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 329-367, 02.
  67. Besanko, David & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. "Collateral and Rationing: Sorting Equilibria in Monopolistic and Competitive Credit Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 671-689, October.
  68. Lerner, Josh, 1995. " Venture Capitalists and the Oversight of Private Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 301-318, March.
  69. Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou, 1996. "Dealer Price Discrimination in New Car Purchases: Evidence from the Consumer Expenditure Survey," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(3), pages 622-654, June.
  70. Brunner, Antje & Pieter, Jan & Weber, Martin, 2000. "Information production in credit relationship: On the role of internal ratings in commercial banking," CFS Working Paper Series 2000/10, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  71. Gene M. Grossman & Carl Shapiro, 1984. "Informative Advertising with Differentiated Products," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(1), pages 63-81.
  72. Mark Grinblatt, 2001. "How Distance, Language, and Culture Influence Stockholdings and Trades," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(3), pages 1053-1073, 06.
  73. Aharony, Joseph & Swary, Itzhak, 1996. "Additional evidence on the information-based contagion effects of bank failures," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 57-69, January.
  74. Allen N. Berger, 2002. "The economic effects of technological progress: evidence from the banking industry," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-50, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  75. Lawrence J. Radecki, 1998. "The expanding geographic reach of retail banking markets," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jun, pages 15-34.
  76. Ted Mallett & Anindya Sen, 2001. "Does Local Competition Impact Interest Rates Charged on Small Business Loans? Empirical Evidence from Canada," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 19(4), pages 435-450, December.
  77. Joris Pinkse & Margaret E. Slade & Craig Brett, 2002. "Spatial Price Competition: A Semiparametric Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(3), pages 1111-1153, May.
  78. Harhoff, Dietmar & Korting, Timm, 1998. "Lending relationships in Germany - Empirical evidence from survey data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(10-11), pages 1317-1353, October.
  79. Kilkenny, Maureen & Thisse, Jacques, 1999. "The Economics of Location: A Selective Survey," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1693, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  80. Joshua D. Coval & Tobias J. Moskowitz, 2001. "The Geography of Investment: Informed Trading and Asset Prices," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(4), pages 811-841, August.
  81. Steven C. Salop, 1979. "Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 141-156, Spring.
  82. Krishnamurthi, Lakshman & Raj, S. P. & Sivakumar, K., 1995. "Unique inter-brand effects of price on brand choice," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 47-56, September.
  83. Shy, Oz, 2002. "A quick-and-easy method for estimating switching costs," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 71-87, January.
  84. Harald Hau, 2001. "Location Matters: An Examination of Trading Profits," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(5), pages 1959-1983, October.
  85. Florian Zettelmeyer & Fiona M. Scott Morton & Jorge Silva-Risso, 2001. "Consumer Information and Price Discrimination: Does the Internet Affect the Pricing of New Cars to Women and Minorities?," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm240, Yale School of Management.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:60:y:2005:i:1:p:231-266. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)

or (Christopher F. Baum)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.