IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bidding behaviour in the ECB's main refinancing operations during the financial crisis


  • Eisenschmidt, Jens
  • Hirsch, Astrid
  • Linzert, Tobias


Liquidity provision through its repo auctions has been one of the main instruments of the European Central Bank (ECB) to address the recent tensions in financial markets since summer 2007. In this paper, we analyse banks' bidding behaviour in the ECB's main refinancing operations (MROs) during the ongoing turmoil in money and financial markets. We employ a unique data set comprising repo auctions from March 2004 to October 2008 with bidding data from 877 counterparties. We find that increased bid rates during the turmoil can be explained by, inter alia, the increased individual refinancing motive, the increased attractiveness of the ECB's tender operations due to its collateral framework and banks' bidding more aggressively, i.e. at higher rates to avoid being rationed at the marginal rate in times of increased liquidity uncertainty. JEL Classification: E52, D44, C33, C34

Suggested Citation

  • Eisenschmidt, Jens & Hirsch, Astrid & Linzert, Tobias, 2009. "Bidding behaviour in the ECB's main refinancing operations during the financial crisis," Working Paper Series 1052, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20091052

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ricardo J. Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2008. "Collective Risk Management in a Flight to Quality Episode," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2195-2230, October.
    2. Dieter Nautz & Jörg Oechssler, 2003. "The Repo Auctions of the European Central Bank and the Vanishing Quota Puzzle," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 105(2), pages 207-220, June.
    3. Craig, Ben & Fecht, Falko, 2007. "The eurosystem money market auctions: A banking perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2925-2944, September.
    4. Michael B. Gordy, 1999. "Hedging Winner'S Curse With Multiple Bids: Evidence From The Portuguese Treasury Bill Auction," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(3), pages 448-465, August.
    5. Välimäki, Tuomas, 2006. "Why the marginal MRO rate exceeds the ECB policy rate?," Research Discussion Papers 20/2006, Bank of Finland.
    6. Fecht, Falko & Nyborg, Kjell G. & Rocholl, Jörg, 2008. "The price of liquidity: bank characteristics and market conditions," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2008,30, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. Mireia Jofre-Bonet & Martin Pesendorfer, 2003. "Estimation of a Dynamic Auction Game," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1443-1489, September.
    8. Linzert, Tobias & Nautz, Dieter & Breitung, Jorg, 2006. "Bidder behavior in central bank repo auctions: Evidence from the Bundesbank," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 215-230, July.
    9. Kjell G. Nyborg, 2004. "Multiple Unit Auctions and Short Squeezes," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(2), pages 545-580.
    10. Milgrom, Paul R & Weber, Robert J, 1982. "A Theory of Auctions and Competitive Bidding," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(5), pages 1089-1122, September.
    11. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    12. Linzert, Tobias & Nautz, Dieter & Bindseil, Ulrich, 2004. "The longer term refinancing operations of the ECB," Working Paper Series 359, European Central Bank.
    13. Nautz, Dieter, 1998. "Banks' demand for reserves when future monetary policy is uncertain," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 161-183, June.
    14. Giuseppe Bruno & Ernesto Maurizio Ordine & Antonio Scalia, 2005. "Banks� participation in the Eurosystem auctions and money market integration," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 562, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Vogel, Edgar, 2014. "MRO bidding in the presence of LTROs: an empirical analysis of the pre-crisis period," Working Paper Series 1753, European Central Bank.
    2. Matteo Crosignani & Miguel Faria-e-Castro & Luís Fonseca, 2016. "The (unintended?) consequences of the largest liquidity injection ever," ESRB Working Paper Series 31, European Systemic Risk Board.
    3. Acharya, Viral V. & Imbierowicz, Björn & Steffen, Sascha & Teichmann, Daniel, 2015. "Does Lack of Financial Stability Impair the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," HIT-REFINED Working Paper Series 24, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    4. Gabriel Pérez Quirós & Hugo Rodríguez Mendizábal, 2012. "Asymmetric Standing Facilities: An Unexploited Monetary Policy Tool," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 60(1), pages 43-74, April.
    5. Dunne, Peter G. & Fleming, Michael J. & Zholos, Andrey, 2013. "ECB monetary operations and the interbank repo market," Staff Reports 654, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    6. Bucher, Monika & Hauck, Achim & Neyer, Ulrike, 2014. "Frictions in the interbank market and uncertain liquidity needs: Implications for monetary policy implementation," DICE Discussion Papers 134, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    7. Paolo Fegatelli, 2010. "The role of collateral requirements in the crisis: one tool for two objectives?," BCL working papers 44, Central Bank of Luxembourg.
    8. Yasuo Hirose & Shinsuke Ohyama, 2009. "Identifying the Effect of Bank of Japan's Liquidity Facilities: The Case of CP Operations During Financial Turmoil," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 09-E-7, Bank of Japan.
    9. repec:eee:riibaf:v:43:y:2018:i:c:p:79-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Fricke, Daniel, 2010. "Contagion between European and US banks: Evidence from equity prices," Kiel Working Papers 1667, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    11. Nuno Cassola & Ali Hortaçsu & Jakub Kastl, 2013. "The 2007 Subprime Market Crisis Through the Lens of European Central Bank Auctions for Short‐Term Funds," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(4), pages 1309-1345, July.
    12. Luís Fonseca & Matteo Crosignani & Miguel Faria-e-Castro, 2015. "Central Bank Interventions, Demand for Collateral, and Sovereign Borrowing Costs," Working Papers w201509, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    13. Jason Allen & Ali Hortaçsu & Jakub Kastl, 2011. "Analyzing Default Risk and Liquidity Demand during a Financial Crisis: The Case of Canada," Staff Working Papers 11-17, Bank of Canada.
    14. Carla Soares & Paulo M. M. Rodrigues, 2013. "Determinants of the EONIA Spread and the Financial Crisis," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 81, pages 82-110, October.
    15. Sunil Kumar & Anand Prakash & Krishna M. Kushawaha, 2017. "What Explains Call Money Rate Spread in India?," Working Papers id:11975, eSocialSciences.
    16. Abbassi, Puriya & Fecht, Falko & Weber, Patrick, 2013. "How stressed are banks in the interbank market?," Discussion Papers 40/2013, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    17. Yasuo Hirose & Shinsuke Ohyama, 2010. "Identifying the Effect of the Bank of Japan's Liquidity Facilities: The Case of Commercial Paper Operations During the Financial Turmoil," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(3), pages 461-483, Winter.
    18. Brossard, Olivier & Saroyan, Susanna, 2016. "Hoarding and short-squeezing in times of crisis: Evidence from the Euro overnight money market," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 163-185.
    19. Kraenzlin, Sébastien & Schlegel, Martin, 2012. "Bidding behavior in the SNB’s repo auctions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 170-188.
    20. Linzert, Tobias & Schmidt, Sandra, 2008. "What explains the spread between the euro overnight rate and the ECB's policy rate?," Working Paper Series 983, European Central Bank.

    More about this item


    bidding behaviour; Central Bank auctions; financial market turmoil; monetary policy instruments; panel sample selection model;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • D44 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Auctions
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C34 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20091052. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Official Publications). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.