Citations for "Structural Causes of the Global Financial Crisis: A Critical Assessment of the ‘New Financial Architecture’"
by James Crotty
- Teodoro Dario Togati, 2012. "How to Explain the Persistence of the Great Recession? A Balanced Stability Approach," Working papers 014, Department of Economics and Statistics (Dipartimento di Scienze Economico-Sociali e Matematico-Statistiche), University of Torino.
- Robert E. Prasch, 2011. "After the Crash of 2008: Financial Reform in an Age of Plutocracy," Chapters, in: The Global Financial Crisis, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Gerald Epstein & James Crotty, 2013. "How big is too big? On the social efficiency of the financial sector in the United States," Chapters, in: Capitalism on Trial, chapter 20 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Engelbert Stockhammer, 2012. "Financialization," Chapters, in: Handbook of Critical Issues in Finance, chapter 17, pages i-ii Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Rodolfo Signorino, 2011.
"Economics in the Mirror of the Financial Crisis,"
in: The Global Financial Crisis, chapter 11
Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Jon D. Wisman, 2013.
"Government Is Whose Problem?,"
2013-01, American University, Department of Economics.
- Özgür Orhangazi, 2011. "“Financial” vs. “Real”: An Overview of the Contradictory Role of Finance," Working Papers wp274, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- Wosnitza, Jan Henrik & Denz, Cornelia, 2013. "Liquidity crisis detection: An application of log-periodic power law structures to default prediction," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(17), pages 3666-3681.
- IANCU, Aurel, 2013. "Extending Financialisation and Increasing Fragility of the Financial System," Working Papers of National Institute of Economic Research 130307, National Institute of Economic Research.
- W A Jackson, 2015. "Markets and the Meaning of Flexibility," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65, September.
- Giancarlo Bertocco, 2011. "Housing bubble and economic theory: is mainstream theory able to explain the crisis?," Economics and Quantitative Methods qf1116, Department of Economics, University of Insubria.
- Ryoo, Soon, 2010.
"Long waves and short cycles in a model of endogenous financial fragility,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 163-186, June.
- Soon Ryoo, 2009. "Long waves and short cycles in a model of endogenous financial fragility," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2009-03, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
- Paula-Elena DIACON, 2013. "The Economic Crisis between Liberalization and Government Intervention," EuroEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 1(32), pages 77-83, May.
- Eduardo Strachman & José Ricardo Fucidji, 2012.
"The Current Financial And Economic Crisis: Empirical And Methodological Issues,"
Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance,
ASERS Publishing, vol. 0(1), pages 95-123, June.
- Strachman, Eduardo & Fucidji, José Ricardo, 2010. "The Current Financial and Economic Crisis: Empirical and Methodological Issues," MPRA Paper 27130, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Cordelius Ilgmann & Ulrich van Suntum, "undated". "Bad Banks: The Case of Germany," Working Papers 200110, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
- Fukuda, Takashi & Dahalan, Jauhari, 2011. "Finance-Growth-Crisis Nexus in India: Evidence from Cointegration and Causality Assessment," MPRA Paper 39467, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ben R. Martin, 2015.
"Twenty Challenges for Innovation Studies,"
SPRU Working Paper Series
2015-30, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
- James Crotty, 2011.
"The Realism of Assumptions Does Matter: Why Keynes-Minsky Theory Must Replace Efficient Market Theory as the Guide to Financial Regulation Policy,"
UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers
2011-05, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
- James Crotty, 2011. "The Realism of Assumptions Does Matter: Why Keynes-Minsky Theory Must Replace Efficient Market Theory as the Guide to Financial Regulation Policy," Working Papers wp255, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- Tkalec, Marina & Vizek, Maruška & Verbič, Miroslav, 2014. "Balance sheet effects and original sinners’ risk premiums," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 597-613.
- Rashid, Abdul & Saedan, Mashael, 2013.
"Financial Crisis and Exchange Rates in Emerging Economics: An Empirical Analysis using PPP-UIP-Framework,"
49832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Abdul Rashid, 2013. "Financial crisis and exchange rates in emerging economies: An empirical analysis using PPP-UIP-Framework," Business and Economic Horizons (BEH), Prague Development Center, vol. 9(4), pages 86-96, December.
- Pedro Araujo & Olena Mykhaylova & James Staveley-O’Carroll, 2015. "Financial liberalization and patterns of international portfolio holdings," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 213-234, August.
- Manfred Gärtner & Björn Griesbach & Florian Jung, 2011.
"PIGS or Lambs? The European Sovereign Debt Crisis and the Role of Rating Agencies,"
International Advances in Economic Research,
Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 17(3), pages 288-299, August.
- Gärtner, Manfred & Griesbach, Bjoern & Jung, Florian, 2011. "PIGS or Lambs? The European Sovereign Debt Crisis and the Role of Rating Agencies," Economics Working Paper Series 1106, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
- Martha A. Starr, 2012.
"Contributions of Economists to the Housing-Price Bubble,"
Journal of Economic Issues,
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 46(1), pages 143-172, March.
- Martha A. Starr, 2011. "Contributions of economists to the housing-price bubble," Working Papers 2011-03, American University, Department of Economics.
- Jon D. Wisman, 2013.
"Wage stagnation, rising inequality and the financial crisis of 2008,"
Cambridge Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 37(4), pages 921-945.
- Jon D. Wisman, 2012. "Wage Stagnation, Rising Inequality and the Financial Crisis of 2008," Working Papers 2012-01, American University, Department of Economics.
- Dieter Gramlich & Mikhail V. Oet & Stephen J. Ong, 2013. "Policy in adaptive financial markets—the use of systemic risk early warning tools," Working Paper 1309, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
- Söderberg, Inga-Lill & Wester, Misse, 2012. "Lay actions in the face of crisis—Swedish citizens’ actions in response to the global financial crisis of 2008," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 796-805.
- Malleson, Tom, 2014. "After Occupy: Economic Democracy for the 21st Century," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199330102.
- Giancarlo Bertocco, 2011. "Finance and risk: does finance create risk?," Economics and Quantitative Methods qf1115, Department of Economics, University of Insubria.
- Theurl, Theresia & Schaetzle, Dominik, 2011. "Ratingagenturen in der Kritik: Eine Analyse der Reformforderungen und -vorschläge," Arbeitspapiere 116, University of Münster, Institute for Cooperatives.
- Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel & Chiripanhura, Blessing M., 2013.
"The Impacts of the Food, fuel and Financial Crises on Households in Nigeria: A Retrospective Approach for Research Enquiry,"
WIDER Working Paper Series
058, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel & Chiripanhura, Blessing, 2013. "The impacts of the food, fuel and financial crises on households in Nigeria. A retrospective approach for research enquiry," MPRA Paper 47348, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Gerald Epstein, 2014. "Restructuring finance to promote productive employment," European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 11(2), pages 161-170, September.
- Jeong, Sangjun & Jung, Hueechae, 2011.
"Banks' wholesale funding and credit procyclicality: evidence from Korea,"
35568, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Sangjun Jeong & Hueechae Jung, 2013. "Bank Wholesale Funding and Credit Procyclicality:Evidence from Korea," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 60(5), pages 615-631, September.
- Niamh Hardiman, 2010. "Bringing Domestic Institutions Back into Understanding Ireland’s Economic Crisis," Working Papers 201042, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
- Konstantinos Loizos, 2014. "How financial innovation might cancel out bank regulation along financial cycles. A Keynes's state of confidence interpretation," Working Papers PKWP1403, Post Keynesian Economics Study Group (PKSG).
- Conti, Claudio Ramos & Goldszmidt, Rafael & Vasconcelos, Flávio Carvalho de, 2015. "Estratégias para desempenho superior em recessões: pro ou contra-cíclicas?," RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, FGV-EAESP Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo (Brazil), vol. 55(3), May.
- Langedijk, Sven & Nicodème, Gaëtan & Pagano, Andrea & Rossi, Alessandro, 2015. "Debt Bias in Corporate Income Taxation and the Costs of Banking Crises," CEPR Discussion Papers 10616, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Swanepoel, G.D. & Hadrich, Joleen & Goemans, Christopher, 2015. "Estimating the Contribution of Groundwater Irrigation to Farmland Values in Phillips County, Colorado," Journal of the ASFMRA, American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers.
- Faruk Ülgen, 2012. "Paving the way for reconsidering the working of market economies: the Minsky perspective," Post-Print halshs-00868521, HAL.
- Li, Boyao, 2017. "The impact of the Basel III liquidity coverage ratio on macroeconomic stability: An agent-based approach," Economics Discussion Papers 2017-2, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Engelbert Stockhammer, 2010. "Financialization and the Global Economy," Working Papers wp240, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- M. Imtiaz Mazumder, 2010. "Greed, financial innovation or laxity of regulation?," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 110-134, June.
- Akbar, Saeed & Rehman, Shafiq ur & Ormrod, Phillip, 2013. "The impact of recent financial shocks on the financing and investment policies of UK private firms," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 59-70.
- Zahir Dossa & Katrin Kaeufer, 2014. "Understanding Sustainability Innovations Through Positive Ethical Networks," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 119(4), pages 543-559, February.
- Robert Pollin & James Heintz, 2013. "Study of U.S. Financial System," FESSUD studies fstudy10, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
- Locher, Maximilian Matthias, 2015. "Ein neuer semiosphärischer Blick auf Märkte: Homogenisierung, Sequenzierung und intra-organisationale Rigidisierung," Discussion Papers 30/2015, Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Management and Economics.
- Stravelakis, Nikos, 2014.
"Financial Crisis and Economic Depression: 'Post Hoc Ego Propter Hoc'? Implications for Financial Asset Valuation and Financial Regulation,"
55944, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Nikos STRAVELASKIS, 2014. "Financial Crisis and Economic Depression: 'Post Hoc ergo Propter Hoc'? Implications for Financial Asset Valuation and Financial Regulation," Chapters of Challenges to Financial Stability â€“ Perspective, Models and Policies book, in: Renata Karkowska (ed.), Challenges to Financial Stability – Perspective, Models and Policies,Volume I A Framework for Modeling Systemic Risk Drivers of Different Markets, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 187- 210 ASERS Publishing.
- Matthieu Charpe & Peter Flaschel, 2011. "Worker debt, default ans diversity of financial fragility," IMK Working Paper 5-2011, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
- Jon D. Wisman & Barton Baker, 2010.
"Rising Inequality and the Financial Crises of 1929 and 2008,"
2010-10 JEL classificatio, American University, Department of Economics.
- Jon D. Wisman & Barton Baker, 2011. "Rising Inequality and the Financial Crises of 1929 and 2008," Working Papers 2011-01 JEL classificatio, American University, Department of Economics.
- Andreea Gradinaru, 2013. "Social Costs Of The European Union In The Context Of The Economic-Financial Crisis," CES Working Papers, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 5(4), pages 497-511, December.
- Juan Pablo Durán Ortiz, 2014. "Financialization: The AIDS of economic system," ENSAYOS DE ECONOMÍA 012299, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA SEDE MEDELLIN.
- Michael Wosser, 2015. "The Determinants of Systemic Banking Crises A Regulatory Perspective," Economics, Finance and Accounting Department Working Paper Series n265-15.pdf, Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
- Giulio Guarini, 2016. "Macroeconomic and Technological Dynamics: a Structuralist-Keynesian Cumulative Growth Model," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 69(276), pages 49-75.
- Rozalia NISTOR & Costel NISTOR & Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN, 2010. "The Relationship between the Current World Crisis and Global Imbalances," Economics and Applied Informatics, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 2, pages 155-166.
- Iancu, Aurel, 2013. "Financialisation: Structure, Extent, Consequences," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 172-192, June.
- Zeeshan Atiq & M. Emranul Haque, 2015. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Role of Financial Liberalization," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 201, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
- Goda, Thomas & Onaran, Özlem & Stockhammer, Engelbert, 2014.
"A case for redistribution? income inequality and wealth concentration in the recent crisis,"
Greenwich Papers in Political Economy
14056, University of Greenwich, Greenwich Political Economy Research Centre.
- Thomas Goda & Özlem Onaran & Engelbert Stockhammer, 2014. "A case for redistribution? Income inequality and wealth concentration in the recent crisis," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO CIEF 012186, UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT.
- Gkanoutas-Leventis, Angelos & Nesvetailova, Anastasia, 2015. "Financialisation, oil and the Great Recession," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 891-902.
- Barkemeyer, Ralf & Preuss, Lutz & Lee, Lindsay, 2015. "On the effectiveness of private transnational governance regimes—Evaluating corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 312-325.
- Palaiodimos, George & Tzavalis, Elias, 2015. "The EMU effects on asset market holdings and the recent financial crisis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 153-161.
- Fukuda, Takashi & Dahalan, Jauhari, 2011. "“Finance-Growth-Crisis Nexus in India: Evidence from Cointegration and Causality Assessment” - L’interazione finanza-crescita-crisi in India: evidenze da una analisi di cointegrazione e causalità," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 64(3), pages 297-328.
- Nawrocki, Tomasz Leszek & Jonek-Kowalska, Izabela, 2016. "Assessing operational risk in coal mining enterprises – Internal, industrial and international perspectives," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 50-67.
- Mustafa Ar, 2016. "The Discursive Construction of Global Economic Strategies in Turbulent Times," International Journal of Social Science Studies, Redfame publishing, vol. 4(10), pages 1-15, October.
- Thomas Goda, 2013. "The role of income inequality in crisis theories and in the subprime crisis," Working Papers PKWP1305, Post Keynesian Economics Study Group (PKSG).
- Marcelo Madureira Prates, 2013. "Why Prudential Regulation Will Fail to Prevent Financial Crises. A Legal Approach," Working Papers Series 335, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
- Ben Beachy, 2012. "A Financial Crisis Manual Causes, Consequences, and Lessons of the Financial Crisis," GDAE Working Papers 12-06, GDAE, Tufts University.
- Deepankar Basu & Ramaa Vasudevan, 2013.
"Technology, distribution and the rate of profit in the US economy: understanding the current crisis,"
Cambridge Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 37(1), pages 57-89.
- Deepankar Basu & Ramaa Vasudevan, 2011. "Technology, Distribution and the Rate of Profit in the US Economy: Understanding the Current Crisis," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2011-32, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
- Engelbert Stockhammer & collin constantine & Severin Reissl, 2016. "Explaining the Euro crisis: Current account imbalances, credit booms and economic policy in different economic paradigms," Working Papers PKWP1617, Post Keynesian Economics Study Group (PKSG).
- Robert E. Prasch, 2011. "The Instability of Financial Markets: A Critique of Efficient Markets Theory," Chapters, in: Heterodox Analysis of Financial Crisis and Reform, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- André Tomfort, 2017. "Detecting Asset Price Bubbles: A Multifactor Approach," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 46-55.
- Takashi Fukuda & Jauhari Dahalan, 2012. "Finance-Growth-Crisis Nexus in Asian Emerging Economies: Evidence from VECM and ARDL Assessment," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 5(2), pages 69-100, August.
- Giampaolo Gabbi & Elisa Ticci, 2014. "Implications of financialisation for sustainability," Working papers wpaper47, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
- James Crotty, 2010. "The Bonus-Driven “Rainmaker” Financial Firm: How These Firms Enrich Top Employees, Destroy Shareholder Value and Create Systemic Financial Instability (revised)," Working Papers wp209_revised3, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- repec:cmj:journl:y:2013:i:29:tuca is not listed on IDEAS
- Robert E. Prasch, 2010. "Bankers Gone Wild: The Crash of 2008," Chapters, in: Macroeconomic Theory and its Failings, chapter 11 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Halim, Asyraf Abdul & Ariff, Muhammad & Masih, A. Mansur M., 2016. "The impact of real estate, inequality and current account imbalances on excessive credit: A cross country analysis," MPRA Paper 72093, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- repec:ilo:ilowps:488128 is not listed on IDEAS
- Juan A. Montecino & Gerald Epstein, 2014. "Intra-Financial Lending, Credit, and Capital Formation," Working Papers Series 21, Institute for New Economic Thinking.
- repec:kap:iaecre:v:17:y:2011:i:3:p:288-299 is not listed on IDEAS
- Asici, Ahmet Atil & Bunul, Zeynep, 2012. "Green New Deal: A Green Way out of the Crisis?," MPRA Paper 49553, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Gina Ioan, 2013. "Countercyclical Economic Policies in Times of Crisis," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 9(3), pages 126-131, June.
- El-Shagi Makram & Ilgmann Cordelius, 2010. "Die Bedeutung der Besitzverflechtung von Kapitalgesellschaften für die Finanzmarktkrise / The importance of mutual ownership for the genesis of financial crisis," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 61(1), pages 299-324, January.
- Castro Caldas, José & Neves, Vítor & Reis, José, 2011. "Why is economics so fragile?," Revue de la Régulation - Capitalisme, institutions, pouvoirs, Association Recherche et Régulation, vol. 9.
- Fontana, Olimpia & Godin, Antoine, 2013. "Securitization, housing market and banking sector behavior in a stock-flow consistent model," Economics Discussion Papers 2013-13, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Giovanni Ferri & Andrea Morone, 2014.
"The effect of rating agencies on herd behaviour,"
Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination,
Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 9(1), pages 107-127, April.
- Andrea Morone & Giovanni Ferri, 2008. "The Effect of Rating Agencies on Herd Behaviour," SERIES 0022, Dipartimento di Scienze economiche e metodi matematici - Università di Bari, revised Nov 2008.
- Giovanni Ferri & Andrea Morone, 2008. "The Effect of Rating Agencies on Herd Behaviour," EERI Research Paper Series EERI_RP_2008_21, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
- Charpe, Matthieu & Flaschel, Peter, 2013. "Workers’ debt, default and the diversity of financial fragilities," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 48-65.
- Mustafa Kilinc & Cengiz Tunc, 2013. "Turkiye’de Goreli Konut Deflatoru," CBT Research Notes in Economics 1314, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
- Bissoondoyal-Bheenick, Emawtee & Brooks, Robert, 2015. "The credit risk–return puzzle: Impact of credit rating announcements in Australia and Japan," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 35(PA), pages 37-55.
- Andreas Joseph & Irena Vodenska & Eugene Stanley & Guanrong Chen, 2014. "Netconomics: Novel Forecasting Techniques from the Combination of Big Data, Network Science and Economics," Papers 1403.0848, arXiv.org.
- Spanò , Marcello, 2013. "Please do not shoot the wrong enemy!," Working Papers 31/2013, Universidade Portucalense, Centro de Investigação em Gestão e Economia (CIGE).
- Jeong-Bon Kim & Li Li & Mary L. Z. Ma & Frank M. Song, 2013. "CEO Option Compensation, Risk-Taking Incentives, and Systemic Risk in the Banking Industry," Working Papers 182013, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- Anolli, Mario & Beccalli, Elena & Molyneux, Philip, 2014. "Bank earnings forecasts, risk and the crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 309-335.
- Epstein, Gerald., 2015. "Development central banking : a review of issues and experiences," ILO Working Papers 994881283402676, International Labour Organization.
- Bill Lucarelli, 2011. "The Economics of Financial Turbulence," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14252, May.
- James Crotty, 2009. "The Bonus-Driven “Rainmaker” Financial Firm: How These Firms Enrich Top Employees, Destroy Shareholder Value and Create Systemic Financial Instability," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2009-13, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
- Faruk Ülgen, 2014. "Financialized capitalism and the irrelevance of self-regulation : a Minskyian analysis of systemic viability," Post-Print halshs-01111162, HAL.
- repec:jes:wpaper:y:2013:v:5:p:497-511 is not listed on IDEAS
- Ulrich Suntum & Cordelius Ilgmann, 2013. "Bad banks: a proposal based on German financial history," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 367-384, June.
- Myriam J. Maier & Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis, 2012. "Austrian Economics and the Financial Crisis of 2008," EuroEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 3(31), pages 33-45, August.